Peter Todd

Assistant Professor

Contact Information:
Department of Biological Science
National University of Singapore
14 Science Drive 4
Singapore 117543
Tel: 65161034
Fax: 67792486


Teaching Areas:
LSM3254 - Ecology of Aquatic Environments
LSM4261 - Marine Biology
LSM4263 – Field Studies in Biodiversity

Research Areas:
Marine biology, coral reef ecology, giant clams, the functions of colour and morphology.

Research Interests
As an ecologist and SCUBA diver it was almost inevitable that I should end up studying coral reefs. I conducted my doctoral research here in Singapore on intraspecific variation, phenotypic plasticity, and symmetry in scleractinian corals. After my PhD I spent two years in Scotland where I focused on crypsis and polymorphism in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (the only corals in those chilly waters are deep in the sea)! Since returning to Singapore I have also been working on the autecology of giant clams. Much of my research has involves extensive fieldwork and experimentation, sometimes requiring the development of novel methods and techniques for investigating morphology, colours/patterns, and behaviour. Data sets are frequently large and complex, making them suitable for exploration with various multivariate analyses.

Editorial Activities:

  • Academic Editor [Marine Biology] for PLoS ONE (2013 to present)
  • Subject Editor [Marine Ecology] for Oikos (2011 to present)
  • Associate Editor [Conservation and Ecology] for the Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (2005 to present)
  • Editorial Board Member for the Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (2008 to present)
  • Review Editor for Aquatic Biology (2007 to present)
  • Associate Editor [Zoology] for Nature in Singapore (2013 to present)
  • International Advisory Board Member for the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography (2007 to 2011)

    Referee for over 40 ISI-listed journals, including: Behavioural Ecology, Biological Conservation, Biology Letters, BMC Ecology, Bulletin of Marine Science, Coral Reefs, Functional Ecology, Journal of Fish Biology, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Marine Biology, Marine Ecology Progress Series, PLoS ONE, PLoS Computational Biology, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, and Zoology

    Selected Publications (for full list please click here):

    1. Neo, M.L., Erftemeijer, P.L.A., van Beek J.K.L., van Maren D. S., Teo S. L-M and Todd, P.A. (2013) Recruitment constraints in Singapore’s fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) populations – A dispersal model approach. PLoS ONE. 8(3): e58819. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0058819

    2. Stevens, M., Cheo P.R. and Todd, P.A. (2013) Color change and camouflage in the horned ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12039

    3. Ong, C.W., Reimer, J.D. and Todd, P.A. (2012) Morphologically plastic responses to shading in the zoanthids Zoanthus sansibaricus and Palythoa tuberculosa. Marine Biology. 160:1053–1064 

    4. Neo, M.L. and Todd, P.A. (2012) Population density and genetic structure of the giant clams Tridacna crocea and T. squamosa on Singapore’s reefs. Aquatic Biology. 14: 265–275   

    5. Todd, P.A., Oh, J., Loke L.H.L., and Ladle, R.J (2012)  Multi-scale phenotype-substrate matching: evidence from shore crabs (Carcinus maenas L.).Ecological Complexity. 12: 58-62

    6. Erftemeijer, P.L.A., Riegl B., Hoeksema, B.W. and Todd, P.A. (2012) Environmental impacts of dredging and other sediment disturbances on corals: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 64: 1737–1765  

    7. Tay, Y.C., Todd, P.A., Per, S.R. and Chou, L.M. (2012) Simulating the transport of coral larvae among the Southern Islands of Singapore.Aquatic Biology. 15: 283-297

    8. Todd, P.A., Wang W.Y., Huang, H. Belle, C.C., Lim .M L.M., Yeo, D. C. J. (2011) The function of colourful facial bands in mangrove crab (Perisesarma) communication. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 407: 26–33

    9. Belle, C., Wong, J.Q.H., Yeo, D.C.J., Tan, S.H.,Tan, H.H., Clews, E., Todd, P.A. (2011) Ornamental trade as a pathway of Cherax quadricarinatus introduction and establishment. Aquatic Biology. 12: 69-79

    10. Tay, Y.C., Guest, J.R., Todd, P.A. and Chou, L.M. (2011) Vertical distribution and settlement competencies in broadcast spawning coral larvae: implications for dispersal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 409: 324–330

    11. Neo, M.L. and Todd, P.A. (2010) Predator-induced changes in fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa L.) shell morphology. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 397: 21–26

    12. Todd, P.A., Ong, X. and Chou, L.M. (2010) Impacts of pollution on marine life in Southeast Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation. 19: 1063-1082

    13. Ow Y.X. and Todd, P.A. (2010) Light-induced morphological plasticity in the Scleractinian coral Goniastrea pectinata and its functional significance. Coral Reefs. 29: 797-808

    14. Todd, P.A., Guest, J.R., Lu, J. and Chou, L.M. (2010) One in four citations in marine biology papers are inappropriate. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 408: 299-303

    15. Huang, D., Meier, R., Todd, P.A. and Chou, L.M. (2009) More evidence for pervasive paraphyly in scleractinian corals: systematic study of Southeast Asian Faviidae (Cnidaria; Scleractinia) based on molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 50: 102-116

    16. Reimer, J.D. and Todd, P.A. (2009) Preliminary molecular examination of zooxanthellate zoanthid (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) and associated zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) diversity in Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 22: 103-120 [partial front cover]

    17. Todd, P.A., Lee J. H. and Chou L.M. (2009) Polymorphism and crypsis in the boring clam (Tridacna crocea): potential strategies against visual predators. Hydrobiologia. 635: 37-43 [front cover]

    18. Todd, P.A. (2008) Morphological plasticity in scleractinian corals. Biological Reviews. 83: 315-337 [front cover]

    19. Han, L., Todd, P.A., Chou, L.M., Yap, V.B. and Sivalonganathan, B. (2008) The defensive role of scutes in juvenile fluted giant clams (Tridacna squamosa). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 359: 77-83

    20. Todd, P.A. and Ladle, R.J. (2008) Citations: poor practices by authors reduce their value. Nature. 451: 244  

    21. Huang, D., Meier, R., Todd, P.A. and Chou, L.M. (2008) Slow mitochondrial COI sequence evolution at the base of the metazoan tree and its implications for DNA barcoding. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 66:167-174

    22. Todd, P.A., Yeo, D.C.J., Li, D. and  Ladle, R.J. (2007) Citing practices in ecology: can we believe our own words? Oikos. 116: 1599-1601

    23. Huang, D., Todd, P.A. and Guest, J.R. (2007) Locomotion and aggregation in the fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 342: 269–281.

    24. Todd, P.A., Briers, R.A., Ladle, R.J., Middleton, F. (2006) Phenotype-environment matching in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas). Marine Biology. 148: 1357-1367.

    25. Todd, P.A. and Chou, L.M. (2005) A Tale of Survival: Labrador Park, Singapore. Coral Reefs. 24 (3): 391-391. 

    26. Todd, P.A., Ladle, R.J., Briers, R. and Brunton, A. (2005) Quantifying two-dimensional dichromatic patterns using a photographic technique: case study on the shore crab (Carcinus maenas, L.). Ecological Research. 20: 497-502. 

    27. Todd, P.A., Ladle, R.J., Lewin-Koh, N.J.I. and Chou, L.M. (2004) Flesh or Bone? Quantifying small-scale coral morphology using with-tissue and without-tissue techniques. Marine Biology.145: 323-328.

    28. Todd, P.A., Sidle, R.C. and Lewin-Koh, N.J.I. (2004) An aquarium experiment for identifying the physical factors inducing morphological change in two massive scleractinian corals. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 299: 97-133.

    29. Todd, P.A., Ladle, R.J., Lewin-Koh, N.J.I. and Chou, L.M. (2004) Genotype x environment interactions in transplanted clones of the massive corals Favia speciosa and Diploastrea heliopora. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 271: 167-182.

    30. Todd, P.A., Sidle, R.C. and Chou, L.M. (2002) Plastic corals from Singapore 2. Coral Reefs. 21: 407-408.

    31. Todd, P.A., Sidle, R.C. and Chou, L.M. (2002) Plastic corals from Singapore 1. Coral Reefs. 21: 391-392.

    32. Todd, P.A., Sanderson, P.G. and Chou, L.M. (2001) Small-scale variation in the scleractinian coral Favia speciosa (Dana, 1846) around Singapore. Hydrobiologia. 444: 227-235

    updated 6 May 2013