Faculty

WONG Sek Man

Professor

Contact Information:

Department of Biological Science
National University of Singapore
14 Science Drive 4
Singapore 117543

Curriculum Vitae

Lab: Wong's Lab

6516 2976
6779 2486
dbswsm@nus.edu.sg

Research Areas

Plant pathology, virology, molecular biology, structural biology, biotechnology, nanotechnology.

Research Interests

Molecular biology of plant viruses, discovery of new viruses, virus replication and translation mechanisms, rapid and sensitive detection of viruses, synergism in virus-virus and virus-host Interactions, virus novel gene functions, protein expression using plant viral vectors, virus resistant transgenic plants, structural biology and bioinformatics of viruses, use of plant viruses as nano-materials for drug delivery, RNA interference.

Current Projects

Development of plant viral vectors

Our laboratory has synthesized several full-length biologically active cDNA clones of plant viruses, namely the ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), and hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV). Currently, we are making full-length biologically active cDNA clone to melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV).

Investigation of novel viral genes of HCRSV and HLSV

We have discovered two novel viral open reading frames (ORFs) in HCRSV, namely the p23 and the p27 ORFs. The p23 is required for virus replication and the p27 is responsible for symptom severity. We are now expressing the p23 and investigating its function. We are also working on the function of the internal poly(A) tract in translation and replication of HLSV.

Production of virus-resistant transgenic orchids

We are now working towards producing virus-resistant transgenic orchids and watermelons. From our orchid virus sequence survey, we found that coat protein sequences of two prevalent viruses, namely the CymMV and ORSV, share high sequence homology. This information is crucial to the successful production of virus resistant plants.

Research Accomplishments

  1. Determination of full-length sequences and generation of biologically-active cDNA clones of two most prevalent orchid viruses - CymMV and ORSV.

  2. Discovery of two novel open reading frames from HCRSV and a polyA tract in HLSV.

  3. Molecular characterization of AYVV, CMV and ZYMV.

  4. Successful application of non-radioactive cRNA probes, polymerase chain reaction, capillary electrophoresis, molecular beacons and quartz crystal microbalance for plant virus detection.

Selected Publications

  1. Guo S and Wong SM. (2020). Small RNA derived from Tobacco mosaic virus targets a host C2-domain abscisic acid-related (CAR) 7-like protein gene. Phytopathol. Res. 2: 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42483-020-00058-7.

  2. Yang ZT, Wong SM and Yue GH. (2020). Characterization of GAB3 and its association with NNV resistance in the Asian seabass. Fish & Shellfish Immunol.104: 18-24.

  3. Ren R, Gao J, Lu CQ, Wei YL, Jin JP, Wong S-M, Zhu GF and Yang FX. (2020). Highly efficient protoplast Isolation and transient expression system for functional characterization of flowering related genes in Cymbidium orchids. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, 2264; doi:10.3390/ijms21072264.

  4. Yang ZT, Wang L, Wong SM and Yue GH. (2020). The HIF1αn gene and its association with hypoxia tolerance in the Asian seabass. Gene 731: 144341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.144341

  5. Guo S and Wong SM. (2020). A conserved carboxylesterase inhibits Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Viruses 12, 195; doi:10.3390/v12020195

  6. Macharia M, Das PP, Naqvi NI and Wong S-M. (2020). iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics reveals a ferroptosis-like programmed cell death in plants infected by a highly virulent tobacco mosaic virus mutant 24A+UPD. Phytopathol. Res. 2:1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42483-019-0043-5

  7. Wu W, Liu HQ, Dong Y, Zhang Y, Wong S-M, Wang CC, Zhou YJ and Xu QF. (2019). Determination of suitable RT-qPCR reference genes for studies of gene functions in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén). Genes. 10.887. doi 10.3390/genes 10110887

  8. Guo S and Wong S-M. (2019). Poly(A) introduced upstream of the upstream pseudoknot domain of Tobacco mosaic virus led to sequence deletion after serial passaging in host plants. Phytopathol. Res. 1:24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42483-019-0031-9

  9. Macharia MW, Tan WYZ, Das PP, Naqvi NI and Wong S-M. (2019). Proximity-dependent biotinylation screening identifies NbHYPK as a novel interacting partner of ATG8 in plants. BMC Plant Biology 19:326. htpps://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-1930-8

  10. Meng T, Jia Q, Wong S-M and Chua K-B. (2019).  In vitro and In vivo inhibition of infectivity of human enterovirus 71 by a sulfonated food azo dye, brilliant black BN. J Virol.
    doi: 10.1128/JVI.00061-19

  11. Das PP, Macharia MW, Lin QS and Wong S-M. (2019). In planta proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) identifies a TMV replication co-chaperone NbSGT1 in the vicinity of 126 kDa replicase. J Proteome 204: 103402

  12. Wong SM. (2019). Discovery of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus – a familiar tobamovirus that possesses an unfamiliar genome. Page 145 in Proceedings of the 14th International Plant Virus Epidemiology Symposium. Seoul, South Korea, 13-27 May 2019. Convenors P. Palukiatis and J-Y Yoon. Published by Korea Institute of Planning & Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture & forestry. 160 pp,

  13. Gao RM, Liu P, Irwanto N, Loh DR, Wong S-M. (2019). Discovery, Identification, and Functional Characterization of Plant Long Intergenic Noncoding RNAs After Virus Infection. Chapter 10 in book: Plant Long Non-Coding RNAs, pp.187-194. JA Chekanova and H-L Wang eds. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9045-0_10

  14. Das PP, Chua GM, Lin QS and Wong S-M. (2019). iTRAQ-based analysis of leaf proteome identifies important proteins in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and defence pathways crucial to cross-protection against TMV. J Proteome 196: 42-56.

  15. Das PP, Lin QS and Wong S-M. (2019). Comparative proteomics of Tobacco mosaic virus-infected Nicotiana tabacum plants identified major host proteins involved in photosystems and plant defence. J Proteome 194: 191-199.

  16. Niu S, Guo S, Tewary SK and Wong S-M. (2019). Effects of deletion at the TTTSTTT motif of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus coat protein on viral replication and long-distance movement. Virology 526: 13-21.

  17. Petchthai U, Yee CSL and Wong S-M. (2018). Resistance to CymMV and ORSV in artificial microRNA transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Sci. Rep. 8:9958. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28388-9

  18. Wong S-M and Ren Y. (2018). In vitro-reassembled plant virus-like particles of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) as nano-protein cages for drugs. Chapter 15, pages 229-236, in Virus-Derived Nanoparticles for Advanced Technologies – Methods and Protocols. Wege C and Lomonosoff GP (eds). Springer Nature. UK. 652 pp.

  19. Hammond J, Jordan R and Wong S-M. (eds) (2018). Proceedings of the XIV International Symposium on Virus Diseases of Ornamental Plants. Acta Horticulturae  1193: 94pp. published by International Society of Horticultural Science, Belgium.

  20. Guo S and Wong S-M. (2018). Disruption of a stem-loop structure located upstream of pseudoknot domain in Tobacco mosaic virus enhanced its infectivity and viral RNA accumulation. Virology 519: 170-176.

  21. Adams MJ, Adkins S, Bragard C, Gilmer D, Li, D, MacFarlane SA, Wong S-M, Melcher U, Ratti C, Ryu KH and ICTV Report Consortium. (2017). ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Virgaviridae. J. Gen. Virol. 98: 1999-2000.

  22. Guo S and Wong S-M. (2017). Deep sequencing analysis reveals a TMV mutant with a poly(A) tract reduces host defense responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus Res. 239: 126-135.

  23. Guo S, Hsueh Y-C, Tucker-Kellogg G, Wong S-M. (2017). Differential expression of novel microRNAs in response to the infection of a TMV mutant with an internal poly(A) tract in N. benthamiana. Virus Res. 239:143-171.

  24. Liu P, Wang L, Ye BQ, Huang S, Wong S-M, Yue GH. (2017). Characterization of a novel disease resistance gene rtp3 and its association with VNN disease resistance in Asian seabass. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 61: 61-67.

  25. Liu P, Wang L, Kwang J, Yue GH, Wong S-M. (2016). Transcriptome analysis of genes responding to NNV infection in Asian seabass epithelial cells. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 54: 342-352.

  26. Wu C, Li X, Guo S, Wong S-M. (2016). Analyses of RNA-Seq and sRNASeq data reveal a complex network of anti-viral defense in TCV-infected Arabidopsis thaliana. Sci Rep. 6:36007. doi: 10.1038/srep36007

  27. Liu P, Wang L, Wong SM, Yue GH. (2016). Fine mapping QTL for resistance to VNN disease using a high-density linkage map in Asian seabass. Sci. Rep. 6: 32122. doi: 10.1038/srep32122

  28. Gao RM, Liu P, Irwanto N, Loh DR, Wong SM. (2016). A long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC - AP2 is upregulated and negatively correlated with Turnip crinkle virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Rep. doi: 10.1007/s00299-016-2032-9

  29. McGovern RJ, Koh LH, To-anun C, Wong SM. (2016). Reduced incidence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus and leafminer in a tomato cultivar in northern Thailand. Crop Protection 89: 273-277.

  30. Gao RM, Niu SN, Dai WF, Kitajima E, Wong S-M. (2016). Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus in Brazil and synthesis of its biologically active full-length cDNA clone. Virus Genes 52: 13448; doi:10.1007/s11262-016-1344-8

  31. Gao RM, Liu P, Yong Y, Wong S-M. (2016).  Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals correlation between higher WRKY61 expression and reduced symptom severity in Turnip crinkle virus infected Arabidopsis thaliana. Sci. Rep. 6: 24604; doi: 10.1038/srep24604

  32. Liu P, Wang L, Wan ZY, Ye BQ, Huang S, Wong SM, Yue GH (2016). Mapping QTL for resistance against viral nervous necrosis disease in Asian Seabass. Marine Biotechnol. 18: 107-116. doi: 10.1007/s10126-015-9672-6

  33. Guo S, Kierzek E, Chen G, Zhou Y-J, Wong S-M. (2015).  TMV mutants with poly(A) tracts of different lengths demonstrate structural variations in 3'UTR affecting viral RNAs accumulation and symptom expression. Sci. Rep. 5: 18412; doi: 10.1038/srep18412

  34. Li S, Wang S, Wang X, Li X, Zi J, Ge S, Cheng Z, Zhou T, Ji Y, Deng J, Wong S-M, Zhou Y (2015). Rice stripe virus affects the viability of its vector offspring by changing developmental gene expression in embryos.Sci. Rep. 5: 7883 doi:10.1038/srep07883

  35. Niu S, Cao S, Huang LJ, Tan KCL and Wong SM (2015). The length of an internal poly(A) tract of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus is crucial for its replication. Virology 474:52-64.

  36. Niu S, Gil-Salas FM, Tewary SK, Samales AK, Johnson J, Swaminathan K and Wong SM (2014) Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication. PLoS ONE 9(11): e113347. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113347

  37. Gao RM, Xie JT, Lin QS, Seow TK, Wong SM (2014). Identification of differentially expressed proteins in TCV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts determined by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Plant Pathology Bulletin 23(1): 15-29.

  38. Niu SN, Cao SS, Wong SM (2014). An infectious RNA with a hepta-adenosine stretch responsible for programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift derived from a full-length cDNA clone of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus. Virology 449: 229-234.

  39. Gao RM, Tan DJX, Wong SM (2013). Upregulation of miR395 targets ATP sulfurylase and sulfate transporter facilitates sulfur enhanced defence after Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection. Plant Pathology Bulletin 22(2): 107-117.

  40. Gao RM, Wan ZY and Wong SM (2013). Plant growth retardation and conserved miRNAs are correlated to Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection. PLoS ONE 8(12): e85476. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085476

  41. Wong SM. (2013). Application of new technologies to improve orchid varieties (Plenary 4) in Proceedings of the 20th World Orchid Conference, Singapore 2011.  J. Elliot, H. Kurzweil, P. O’Byrne, K.W. Tan, A. van der Schans, S.M. Wong and T. Yam (eds.). National Parks Board & Orchid Society of South East Asia. 584 pp.

  42. Wen Y, Lim GX-Y, Wong S-M (2013). Profiling of genes related to cross protection and competition for NbTOM1 by HLSV and TMV. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73725. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073725.

  43. Gao RM, Wong S-M (2013). Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement. PLoS ONE 8(9): e74000. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074000

  44. Gao RM, Liu P and Wong SM. (2012). Identification of a plant viral RNA genome in the nucleus. PLoS ONE 7(11): e48736. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048736

  45. Gao RM, Ng FKL, Liu P and Wong SM. (2012). Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein upregulates sulfur metabolism genes for enhanced pathogen defense. MPMI 25: 1574-1583.

  46. Chen Z, Tan JY, Wen Y, Niu S, Wong S-M. (2012). A game-theoretic model of interactions between Hibiscus latent Singapore virus and Tobacco mosaic virus. PLoS ONE 7(5): e37007. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037007

  47. Tewary SK, Oda T, Kendall A, Bian W, Stubbs G, Wong SM and Swaminathan K. (2011). Structure of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus by fiber diffraction: a nonconserved His122 contributes to coat protein stability. J. Mol. Biol., 406: 516-526.

  48. Zhang X and Wong SM. (2011). Development of a cell sorting procedure to increase the sensitivity of detection of protein-protein interactions in plant protoplasts. J. Virol. Methods 173: 347-352

  49. Ren Y, Wong SM and Lim LY. (2010). Application of plant viruses as nano drug delivery systems. Pharm. Res., 27: 2509-2513.

  50. Qiao Y, Li HF, Wong SM and Fan ZF. (2009). Plastocyanin transit peptide interacts with Potato virus X coat protein, while silencing of plastocyanin reduces coat protein accumulation in chloroplasts and symptom severity in host plants. MPMI 22:1523-1534.

  51. Zhang X and Wong SM. (2009). Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus upregulates plant sulfite oxidase transcripts and increases sulfate levels in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). J. Gen. Virol. 90:3042-3050.

  52. Cheng A, Speir JA, Yuan YA, Johnson JE and Wong SM. (2009). Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. Acta Cryst. F65: 589-593.

  53. Ajjikuttira PA and Wong SM. (2009). Molecular biology of two orchid infecting viruses: Cymbidium mosaic potexvirus and Odontoglossum ringspot tobamovirus (Chapter 8) in Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives X. K. Tiiu, J. Arditti and S.M. Wong (Eds.) Springer Netherlands. 452 pp

  54. Cheng A, Wong SM and Yuan YA. (2009). Structural basis for dsRNA recognition by NS1 protein of influenza A virus. Cell Res. 19: 187-195.

  55. Wong SM and Seoh ML (2008). Detection of Cymbidium mosaic virus and Odontoglossum ringspot virus using a single pair of PCR primers. Chapter 7 in: Techniques in Diagnosis of Plant Viruses. Eds: GP Rao, RA Valverde and CL Dovas. Studium Press LLC, Texas, USA. Pp.127-139.

  56. Meng, C., Chen, J., Ding, S.-W., Peng, J. and Wong, S.-M. (2008). Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein inhibits trans-acting small-interfering RNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis. J. Gen. Virol. 89: 2349 - 2358.

  57. Wong SM, Koh DC and Liu DX (2008). Identification of plant virus IRES. Methods Mol. Biol. 451: 125-133.

  58. Koh LH, Yap ML, Yik CP, Niu SN and Wong SM (2008). First report of Phytoplasma infection of grasses in Singapore. Plant Dis. 92: 317.

  59. Ren Y, Wong SM and Lim LY (2007). Folic acid-conjugated protein cages of a plant virus: a novel delivery platform for doxorubicin. Bioconjugate Chem. 18:836-843.

  60. Koh DCY, Wang XX, Wong SM and Liu DX (2006). Translation initiation at an upstream CUG codon regulates the expression of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein. Virus Res. 122: 35-44.

  61. Zhou T, Fan ZF, Li HF and Wong SM (2006). Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p27 and its isoforms affect symptom expression and potentiate virus movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) MPMI 19: 948-957.

  62. Chun S, Fan ZF, Wong SM and Li HF (2006).Cloning of cDNAs encoding the three subunits of oxygen evolving complex in Nicotiana benthamiana and gene expression changes in tobacco leaves infected with Tobacco mosaic virus. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 68: 61-68.

  63. Ren YP, Wong SM and Lim LY (2006). In vitro-reassembled plant virus-like particles for loading of polyacids. J. Gen. Virol. 87: 2749-2754.

  64. Li WM and Wong SM. (2006). Analyses of subgenomic promoters of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus and demonstration of 5' untranslated region and 3'-terminal sequences functioning as subgenomic promoters. J. Virol. 80: 3395-3405.

  65. Wang XX, Wong SM and Liu DX. (2006). Identification of Hepta- and Octo-Uridine stretches as sole signals for programmed +1 and -1 ribosomal frameshifting during translation of SARS-CoV ORF 3a variants. Nucleic Acids Res. 34: 1250-1260.

  66. Meng C, Chen J, Peng J and Wong SM. (2006). Host-induced avirulence of hibiscus chlorotic ringpsot virus mutants correlates with reduced gene-silencing suppression activity. J. Gen. Virol. 87: 451-459.

  67. Niu SN, Huang XS, Wong SM, Yu JL, Zhao FX, Li DW, Wang SY, Zhai GM and Shi FS. (2005). Creation of trivalent transgenic watermelon resistant to virus infection. J. Agric. Biotech. 13: 10-15.

  68. Cao SS, Wang HH, Luhur A and Wong SM. (2005). Yeast expression and characterization of SARS-CoV N protein. J. Virol. Methods 130: 83-88.

  69. Ajjikuttira P, Loh CS and Wong SM. (2005). Reciprocal function of movement proteins and complementation of long-distance movement of Cymbidium mosaic virus RNA by Odontoglossum ringspot virus coat protein. J. Gen. Virol. 86: 1543-1553.

  70. Mayers CN, Lee K.-C, Moore A, Wong S.-M. and Carr, JP. (2005). Salicylic acid-induced resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in squash and Arabidopsis thaliana: contrasting mechanisms of induction and antiviral action. MPMI 18: 428-434.

  71. Srinivasan KG, Min BE, Ryu KH, Adkins S and Wong SM. (2005). Determination of complete nucleotide sequence of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus: Evidence for the presence of an internal poly(A) tract. Arch. Virol. 150: 153-166.

  72. Kaplan IB, Lee KC, Canto T, Wong SM and Palukaitis P. (2004). Host-specific encapsidation of a defective RNA 3 of Cucumber mosaic virus. J. Gen. Virol. 85: 3757-3763.

  73. Chatterji A, Ochoa W, Shamieh L, Salakian SP, Wong SM, Clinton G, Ghosh P, Lin T and Johnson JE. (2004). Chemical conjugation of heterologous proteins on the surface of cowpea mosaic virus. Bioconjugate Chem. 15: 807-813.

  74. Wang HH, Yu HH and Wong SM. (2004). Mutation of Phe50 to Ser 50 in the 126/183-kDa proteins of Odontoglossum ringspot virus abolishes virus replication but can be complemented and restored by exact reversion. J. Gen. Virol. 85: 2447-2457.

  75. Wang HH and Wong SM. (2004). Significance of the 3'-terminal region in minus-strand RNA synthesis of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. J. Gen. Virol. 85: 1763-1776.

  76. Wang, Y, Lee KC, Gaba V, Wong SM, Palukaitis P and Gal-On A. (2004). Breakage of resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus by co-infection with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: enhancement of CMV accumulation independent of symptom expression. Arch. Virol. 149: 379-396.

  77. Ma M, Tan TK and Wong SM (2003). Identification and molecular phylogeny of Epulorhiza isolates from tropical orchids. Mycol. Res. 107: 1041-1049.

  78. Doan DNP, Lee KC, Laurinmaki P, Butcher S, Wong SM and Dokland T. (2003). Three-dimensional reconstruction of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. J. Struc. Biol. 144: 253-261.

  79. Lee KC, Lim D, Wong SM and Dokland T. (2003) Purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. Acta Cryst. D59: 1481-1483.

  80. Koh DC, Wong SM and Liu DX. (2003) Synergism of the 3' UTR and an internal ribosome entry site differentially enhances the translation of a plant virus coat protein. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 20565-20573.

  81. Liang XZ, Lucy AP, Ding SW and Wong SM. (2002). The p23 protein of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is indispensable for host-specific replication. J. Virol. 76: 12312-12319.

  82. Liang XZ, Lee BTK and Wong SM. (2002). Covariation in the capsid protein of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus induced by serial passaging in a host restricting movement leads to avirulence in its systemic host. J. Virol. 76: 12320-12324.

  83. Ajjikuttira PA, Lim-Ho CL, Woon MH, Ryu KH, Chang CA, Loh CS and Wong SM. (2002). Genetic variability in the coat protein genes of two orchid viruses: Cymbidium mosaic virus and Odontoglossum ringspot virus. Arch. Virol. 147: 1943-1954.

  84. Lee KC, Lin SS, Yeh SD and Wong SM. (2002). Interactions between nuclear inclusion protein a (NIa) and nuclear inclusion b (NIb) of zucchini yellow mosaic virus and papaya ringspot virus. Plant Path. Bull. 11: 79-86.

  85. Srinivasan KG, Narendrakumar R and Wong SM. (2002). Hibiscus virus S is a new subgroup II tobamovirus: evidence from its unique coat protein and movement protein sequences. Arch. Virol. 147: 1585-1598.

  86. Lim AAL, Tachibana S, Watanabe Y and Wong SM. (2002). Expression and purification of a neuropeptide nocistatin using two related plant viral vectors. Gene 289: 69-79.

  87. Liang XZ, Ding SW and Wong SM. (2002). Development of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) protoplast system for replication study of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus. Plant Cell Rep. 20: 982-986.

  88. Wong SM. (2002). Orchid Viruses - A Compendium. Pages 505-546 in: Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives, VIII. T. Kull and J. Arditti (eds) Kluwer Publishers. 584 pp.

  89. Eun AJC, Huang L, Chew FT, Li SFY and Wong SM (2002). Detection of two orchid viruses using quartz crystal microbalance-based DNA biosensors. Phytopathology 92: 654-658.

  90. Maw T, Tan TK, Khor E and Wong SM (2002). Selection of Gongronella butleri strains for enhanced chitosan yield with UV mutagenesis. J. Biotechnology 95: 189-193.

  91. Maw T, Tan TK, E Khor and Wong SM (2002). Complete cDNA sequence of chitin deacetylase from Gongronella butleri and its phylogenetic analysis revealed clusters corresponding to taxonomic classification of fungi. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 93: 376-381.

  92. Koh DCY, Liu DX and Wong SM. (2002). A six-nucleotide segment within the 3' untranslated region of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus plays an essential role in translational enhancement. J. Virol. 76: 1144-1153.

  93. Eun AJC, Huang L, Chew FT, Li SFY and Wong SM. (2002). Detection of two orchid viruses using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensors. J. Virol. Methods 99: 71-79.

  94. Koh, L.H., Cooper, J.I. & Wong, S.M. (2001) .Complete sequences and phylogenetic analyses of a Singapore isolate of broad bean wilt fabavirus. Arch. Virol. 146:135-147.

  95. Lee, K.C., Koh, A., Loh, C.S. & Wong, S.M. (2001) Cucurbit protoplast isolation for the study of plant virus replication. J. Virol. Methods 91:21-27.

  96. Saunders, K., Bedford, I.D., Briddon, R.W., Markham, P.G., Wong, S.M. & Stanley, J. (2000). A unique virus complex causes Ageratum yellow vein disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:6890-6895.

  97. Huang, M, Koh, C.Y., Weng, L.J., Chang, M.L., Yap, Y.K., Zhang, L. & Wong, S.M. (2000). Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, a new member of the genus Carmoviridae: Evidence for the presence and expression of two novel open reading frames. J. Virol. 74:3149-3155.

  98. Li, H.W., Lucy, A.P., Guo, H.S., Li, W.X., Ji, L.H., Wong, S.M. & Ding, S.W. (1999). Strong host resistance targeted against a viral suppressor of the plant gene silencing defence mechanism. EMBO J. 18:2683-2691.