LSM Modules - Level 3000

NUS Life Sciences

Levels 3000 LSM Modules – Syllabus

 

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3201/research-and-communication-in-life-sciences

Topics:

  1. Scientific Thinking, Inquiry & Communication
  2. Scientific Inquiry Process in the ‘Introduction’
  3. Scientific Inquiry Process in the ‘Materials & Methods’
  4. Scientific Inquiry Process in the ‘Results’
  5. Scientific Inquiry Process in the ‘Discussion’
  6. Summarizing, Presenting & Communicating
  7. Peer Review & Critiquing
  8. Perspectives in Scientific Research & Knowledge Synthesis: A Tree in the Forest & A Forest of Trees

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3211/fundamental-pharmacology

Topics:

  1. The principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
  2. The pharmacology of drug receptors
  3. The autonomic pharmacology
  4. What is adverse drug reaction? The different types of adverse drug reactions.
  5. Vaso-active peptides as drug targets
  6. Inflammation pharmacology: antihistamines, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, anti-asthma drugs
  7. The diversity of phosphodiesterase inhibitors

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3212/human-physiology-cardiopulmonary-system

Topics:

  1. Blood
    • Overview and Composition and functions of blood
    • Blood cell production and Hemostasis
    • Blood Grouping
  2. Cardiovascular System (CVS)
    • Overview and Composition and functions of CVS
    • Electrophysiology of the heart and ECG
    • Mechanical aspects of the heart function
    • Principles of circulatory system and fluid exchange
    • Special circulations
  3. Respiratory System (RS)
    • Breathing
    • Gas Exchange, Gas Transport
    • Control of Breathing
    • Relevance of exercise to the RS
  4. Exercise Physiology (ExP)
    • CVS in Sports:
      • Acute CVS responses during exercise
      • CVS adaptations to long term exercise training
      • CVS adaptations during Altitude training
    • Respiratory system in sports:
      • Respiratory responses during exercise
      • Respiratory control during exercise
      • Respiratory adaptations to exercise training
      • Indirect calorimetry

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3214/human-physiology-hormones-and-health

Topics:

  1. Endocrine System
    • Overview of the central endocrine glands – pineal gland, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland, and anterior pituitary gland.
    • Overview of the peripheral endocrine glands – thyroid gland and parathyroid glands (calcium metabolism).
  2. Reproductive System
    • Male reproductive physiology
    • Female reproductive physiology
    • Pregnancy
  3. Digestive System
    • Digestive processes – gastrointestinal tract, digestion and absorption, and gastrointestinal hormones.
    • Energy balance
    • Appetite control
  4. Renal System
    • Fluid processing – anatomical structures, glomerular filtration, hormonal regulation, and urine formation and excretion.
    • Fluid balance – body fluid compartments, hormonal control of volume and osmotic balance.

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3215/neuronal-signaling-and-memory-mechanisms

Topics:

  1. How does the brain work?
  2. Excitability of membrane: resting potential
  3. Electrical signaling: action potential
  4. Functions of voltage-gated ion channels
  5. TRP channels in taste and thermoregulation
  6. Mechanisms of auditory transmission
  7. Ion channelopathies  
  8. Presynaptic event: Neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter release mechanisms
  9. Postsynaptic events: Molecular biology of neurotransmitter receptors
  10. Neuronal signalling and integration
  11. Synapse and neurodegenerative diseases
  12. Classifications of memory: Role of hippocampus and amygdala
  13. Models of memory from  aplysia to human
  14. Molecules and mechanisms of memory

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3216/neuronal-development-and-diseases

Topics:

  1. Overview of Developmental Neurobiology
  2. Neuronal polarity & protein trafficking
  3. Neural induction pattern formation and neurogenesis
  4. Neuronal migration and axonal pathfinding
  5. Neuronal death and neurodegeneration
  6. Neuronal regeneration & neural stem cells
  7. Rodent models for neuroscience research
  8. Glia biology
  9. Neurotrophic factors

Module is not offered this AY2020/21.

Topics:

  1. Biology of Ageing Theories
  2. Sirtuins and NF-kappaB in Ageing
  3. Ageing and Senescence
  4. Cell Stress Pathways in Ageing
  5. Active Ageing Mechanisms
  6. Autophagy in Ageing
  7. Ageing Heart
  8. Hallmarks of Brain Ageing
  9. Animal Models of Ageing
  10. Epigenetics and Aging
  11. Dietary Restriction and Ageing
  12. Resveratrol and Rapamycin
  13. Hormesis and Ageing
  14. Growth Hormones and Ageing

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3218/cardiopulmonary-pharmacology

Topics:

  1. Cardio-pulmonary physiology and Pharmacology
    • Anatomy of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems
    • Physiology of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems
    • Cardiac electrophysiology and anti-arrhythmic Drugs
    • Adrenergic and Anti-adrenergic Drugs
    • Cholinergic and Anti-Cholinergic Drugs
  2. Cardiovascular drugs
    • Antihypertensive drug I
    • Antihypertensive drug II
    • Drugs for Ischemic heart diseases
    • Drugs for heart failure
    • Lipid Lowering drugs
    • Anti-thrombotics
  3. Pulmonary drugs
    • Drugs for Asthma and COPD
    • Drugs for pulmonary hypertension & fibrosis
  4. Experimental Approach to Study Cardiopulmonary Drugs
    • Experimental Models for Cardiovascular Diseases
    • Experimental Models for Pulmonary Diseases
  5. Alternative Medicine and Therapeutic Intervention
    • Natural products
    • Stent devices
    • Aerosol Therapy

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3219/neuropharmacology

Topics:

  1. Introduction and Principles of Neuropharmacology
  2. CNS drugs and their clinical uses
    • Sedatives and hypnotics
    • General and local anesthetics
    • Drugs used in pain management
    • Substance abuse and drug addiction
    • Drugs for depression and anxiety disorders
    • Drugs for psychosis and mania
    • Drugs used in epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders
    • Pharmacological management of Parkinsonism and other
      movement disorders
    • Drugs used in the treatment of dementia
  3. Clinical drug trials in neurosciences

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3222/human-neuroanatomy

Topics:

  1. Overview of the human nervous system
  2. Histology of peripheral nerves
  3. Spinal nerves and reflex arc
  4. The brachial and lumbosacral plexuses
  5. Autonomic innervation of thoracic organs
  6. Autonomic innervation of abdominal and pelvic organs
  7. The vertebral column and gross morphology of the spinal cord
  8. Ascending tracts in the spinal cord
  9. Descending tracts in the spinal cord
  10. The skull and meninges, gross anatomy and blood supply of the brain
  11. Special senses – sight and hearing
  12. Cranial nerves
  13. The brainstem
  14. The thalamus and hypothalamus
  15. Histology of the cerebral cortex
  16. Functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex
  17. The basal ganglia – dorsal striatum
  18. Olfactory and limbic system – septum and hippocampus
  19. The limbic system – the ventral striatum and amygdala

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3223/immunology

Topics:

  1. Introduction to immunology
    • Overview of the immune system
    • Cells and structures of the immune system
    • Innate immunity
  2. Humoral immunity and effector mechanisms
    • Immunoglobulin structure and function
    • Complement
    • Cytokines and chemokines
  3. Antigen recognition and immune interactions
    • Generation of antigen receptor diversity
    • Major Histocompatibility Complex
    • Antigen processing and presentation
  4. Cellular immunology and immune regulation
    • T cell development
    • B cell development
    • T Cell function
    • T‐B cell interaction (Germinal center reaction)
  5. Infection immunity
    • Viruses
    • Parasites
    • Bacteria and fungi
  6. Immunity in disease
    • Allergy
    • Autoimmunity
    • Immunodeficiency
    • Tumour immunology
  7. Research applications
    • Vaccines and immunization

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3224/molecular-basis-of-human-diseases

Topics:

  1. METABOLIC DISEASES
    • DIABETES
    • OBESITY
  2. INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  3. MICROBIAL FACTORS AND PATHOGENECITY
  4. IMMUNITY AND HOST-CELL INTERACTIONS
  5. CANCER
  6. GENETICS
  7. PATHWAYS
  8. MODEL SYSTEMS
  9. TECHNIQUES AND APPROACHES

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3225/molecular-microbiology-in-human-diseases

Topics:

  1. Introduction
    • Introduction to molecular microbiology
    • Evolution of microbes/Introduction to host-pathogen relationships
    • The infectious disease mechanism (requirement and transmission)/Control and treatment of microbial growth
  2. Viruses
    • Molecular Virology
    • Viral evolution and pathogenesis
    • Vaccine development
    • Antivirals and antiviral resistance
  3. Bacteria and Fungi
    • Introduction to Bacteriology-Basic principles and diagnostic methods
    • Pathogenesis of bacterial diseases
    • Host immune responses to bacterial infection
    • Fungi and fungal infection
  4. Parasites
    • Introduction to medical parasitology
    • Diagnostic parasitology
    • Host-Parasite Interactions
    • Anti-parasite Strategies
    • Emerging parasitic pathogens
  5. Communicable disease outbreak investigation and public health surveillance
  6. Vector Borne Viruses Epidemiology and Global Situation
  7. Clinical Applications of Molecular Diagnostics – Infectious Diseases

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3226/medical-mycology-and-drug-discovery

Topics:

  1. Overview of the fungi kingdom
  2. Primary and opportunistic fungal pathogens in relation to Koch’s
    postulate and its limitations
  3. Fungal pathogenic and virulence factors
  4. Host-cell interactions, innate and acquired immunity
  5. Diagnostics and their limitations
  6. Drug resistance and emerging issues
  7. Drug discovery – current approaches
  8. Drug discovery – present and future challenges
  9. Public health concerns

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3227/general-virology

Topics:

  1. Introduction: Viruses and Virology
    • The nature of viruses; a brief history of virology; cultivation and methods of viral infectivity assay.
  2. Virus taxonomy: the world of viruses
    • Virus classification; major virus groups; and genetic analysis of viruses.
  3. Virus structure and assembly
    • General functions of the virion; methods for studying virus structure; major virus components (capsids, envelopes, nuclear acids); virion assembly including package viral genome.
  4. Viruses go “viral”
    • Overview of infectious cycle; virus entry; infection of host and transmission; patterns of infection; epidemiology; the spectrum of host-virus interactions.
  5. Living with viruses (1): viral epidemics in Asia and Singapore
    • Major viral diseases in the past (polio, hepatitis) and the present (SARS, HIV and Dengue), history of viral diseases in Singapore.
  6. Living with viruses (2): viral diseases and food security
    • Plant Virus: African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV); animal Virus: African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Avian influenza Virus, Foot and-mouth disease (FMD); shrimp virus: White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV); fish Virus: Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV).
  7. Living with viruses (3): viruses in water environment
    • Viruses in water environments; water-borne diseases (Norovirus and Hepatitis A); viruses in aquatic ecosystems (bacteriophages and marine virioplankton).
  8. Unusual Infectious Agents: viroids, satellites, and prions
    • Viroids, Satellites, prions and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
  9. The Good That Viruses Do
    • Brief review on virus-host relations; phage therapy; baculoviruses as pest control, and viruses as nanomaterials

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3231/protein-structure-and-function

Topics:

  1. Protein structures
    • Overview of protein structure
    • Structural patterns in protein
    • Varieties of protein structures
    • Protein function
    • Structural diversity reflects functional diversity in globular proteins
    • Structure-function relationships in selected protein
  2. Advanced enzymology
    • Enzymes, enzyme reaction kinetics, mechanism of action, and allosteric control of enzyme activity
    • Probing structure –function relationships
    • Chemical modification
    • Epitope mapping,
    • Site-directed mutagenesis
  3. Methods for determination of protein structures
    • Primary structure by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry
    • Solid phase peptide synthesis and applications of synthetic peptides
    • Secondary structure by circular dichroism and theoretical methods
    • Tertiary structure by X-ray diffraction and NMR
    • Prediction, engineering and design of protein structure

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3232/microbiology

Topics:

  1. Scope of microbiology: the diversity of the microbial world and microbial taxonomy
  2. Microbial structure and function: microbial physiology, microbial nutrition and microbial growth
  3. Food microbiology
  4. Environmental microbiology
  5. Medical microbiology: Microbial diseases and their control

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3233/developmental-biology

Topics:

  1. Animal Development: An Overview
    • Historical perspective and milestones in the study of animal embryology. Principles, concepts and tools in modern developmental biology.
  2. Fertilization: Starting a New Organism
    • The union of gametes, cytoplasmic determinants, cleavage patterns, maternal effect and zygotic control.
  3. From Eggs to Embryos: Morphogenesis
    • Process and significance of gastrulation and neurulation, concepts of embryonic induction and axis formation, determination and differentiation.
  4. Pattern Formation I: Development of the Nervous System
    • Cell migration and differentiation, morphogen gradients, positional information, signalling cascades.
  5. Pattern Formation II: Limb development
    • Formation and regeneration of limbs.
  6. Pattern Formation III: Segmentation
    • Somitogenesis in vertebrates; body segment formation in invertebrates.
  7. Model Organisms and the Determination of Sexes
    • C. elegans, Drosophila, zebrafish and mouse: evolution of sex determination.
  8. Plant Development: An Introduction
    • Why and how to study plant development? An introduction to flowering plants
  9. Seed germination and seedling development
    • How do baby plants survive on their own?
  10. Shoot and root development
    • The powerful meristems at the tips
  11. Leaf and stomatal development
    • Plant organogenesis and cell differentiation
  12. Flower development
    • How do plants make flowers?
  13. Fertilization and embryogenesis
    • Uniting plant gametes and the development of a plant embryo

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3234/biological-imaging-of-growth-and-form

Topics:

  1. Basic Optics: how does a microscope work? Magnification and resolution
  2. The chemistry of cells (Introduction to contrast formation)
  3. Cell compartments (Introduction to electron microscopy)
  4. Cytoskeleton (Introduction to confocal microscopy)
  5. Gradient in a cell (FRET and FLIM)
  6. Cell polarity
  7. Cell shape
  8. Organ size-cell size
  9. Organ size-cell growth cycle
  10. Organ size- cell proliferation
  11. Tissue pattern

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3235/epigenetics-in-human-health-and-diseases

Topics:

  1. Introduction to Epigenetics
  2. Molecular machines involved in maintaining epigenetic code
  3. Roles of non-coding RNA in epigenetics
  4. Epigenetics in development
  5. Epigenetics in heart and related diseases
  6. Mitochondrial Epigenetics
  7. Mitochondrial Epigenetics in disease
  8. Epigenetics in metabolic diseases
  9. Epigenetics in brain and related diseases
  10. Environmental influences on epigenome
  11. Epigenetics in ageing
  12. Epigenetics in regenerative medicine

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3241/genomic-data-analysis

Topics:

  1. Bioinformatics Resource
    • Solving Biological Problems with Bioinformatics Software Implementation. Concepts in databases. Knowledge discovery: Ontologies and Data grammar (XML).
  2. Basic Bioinformatics Scripting
    • Concepts in programming. Introduction to Algorithms in Bioinformatics.
  3. Machine Learning techniques in biological data analysis
    • Machine learning I (SVM). Machine learning II (RF).
  4. Molecular Modeling and Rational Drug Discovery and Design
    • Advanced Computational Structural Biology: Structural Modeling and Molecular Dynamics; Computational Drug Design.
  5. Protein Interactions, Biological Pathways and Simulation
    • Modelling of biological pathways; Analyzing Protein-Protein Interactions
  6. Development of Bioinformatics

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3242/translational-microbiology

Topics:

  1. Introduction
    • History – Microbes and cell cultivation – Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • Module overview – Co-evolution of life and minerals & Exhibition of mineral/gem specimen
  2. Public health – Nutrition
    • An ‘omics’ toolbox to delve into the human microbiome
    • Intestinal microbiology in early life and its translation into nutritional concept: prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics
    • From industrial microbiology to a functional dairy food with health benefits
  3. Synthetic biology (Genetically engineered microorganisms)
    • Basics of synthetic biology – Bacterial regulation & Key concepts
    • Application & engineering of proteins
    • Modern genetic technologies & Synthetic organisms
  4. Biotechnology
    • Antibiotics & enzymes
    • Bio-mining/-leaching – Exhibition of metal ore specimen
    • Microbes in bioremediation
    • Microbial functions in genetic therapy – Genome editing
  5. Diagnostics & therapeutics development
    • Microorganisms as gene shuttles & for therapy of human diseases

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3243/molecular-biophysics

Topics:

  1. Conformational Analysis and Forces that determine structures of protein and nucleic acid
    • Potential energy, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic , ion-ion , ion-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions, disulfide bonds
    • Base pairing, base stacking
    • Protein and DNA conformations
  2. Protein folding & Protein interaction
    • Conformational transitions in proteins and nucleic acids
    • Protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions
    • Kinetics of ligand interactions
  3. Biological membranes
    • Lipids, micelles and bilayers, membrane, membrane protein, lipid-protein interactions
    • Transport of small molecules across cell membrane
  4. Biophysical techniques for studies of structure, dynamics and
    interactions of proteins, nucleic acids and membranes

    • Circular dichroism, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3244/molecular-biotechnology

Topics:

  1. Introduction to the module and historical background for the biotechnology industry
  2. Introduction to recombinant DNA technology and recombinant protein expression 
  3. Introduction to genome editing and its application in biotechnology
  4. Next-generation sequencing
  5. Protein and proteomic technology in biotechnology. 
  6. Selected talks by the local Biotechnology industry players
  7. Patent and intellectual properties in Biotechnology
  8. Antibody engineering in therapeutics
  9. Stem cell therapy
  10. Immune-based cell therapy
  11. Biotechnology in food production
  12. Authentic learning from industry experts

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3245/rna-biology-and-technology

Topics:

  1. Introduction & Coding RNA
    • The RNA world hypothesis – Molecular unit of genotype and phenotype
    • The role of RNA in gene expression
    • Structure and function of RNA
  2. Naturally occurring non-coding RNA
    • Antisense RNA and ribozymes
    • Circular RNA
    • Bacterial Cas/CRISPR systems
    • Bacterial riboswitches
    • RNA interference: miRNA, siRNA, and piRNA
    • Non-coding RNA and human diseases
  3. Artificial non-coding RNA
    • Selection and evolution of RNA: in silico, in vitro (SELEX), and in vivo
    • Aptamers and ‘Spiegelmers’
    • In vitro & in silico selection of antisense RNA
    • siRNA and shRNA design
    • mRNA design for enhanced gene expression
    • mRNA and miRNA as targets
    • RNA-guided genome editing (CRISPR/Cas9)
    • RNA splicing (cis/trans)-based therapeutic approaches
  4. RNA in early stage pharmaceutical development
    • RNAi-based screens for target discovery & validation
    • RNA-based diagnostics
    • High-throughput technologies: Sequencing & microarrays of RNA
  5. RNA as a drug – clinical applications
    • Delivery and chemical modifications of RNA
    • Clinical Trials, FDA approval, and RNA-based drugs

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3246/synthetic-biology

Topics:

  1. Introduction to Synthetic Biology
  2. Biological Principles of Synthetic Biology
  3. Engineering Principles of Synthetic Biology
  4. Genetic Circuits
  5. Synthetic Biology & Enzymology
  6. Principles of Synthetic Enzymology
  7. Synthetic Enzymology Applications in Synthetic Biology
  8. Systems Biology for Synthetic Biology
  9. Computational Modelling for Synthetic Biology
  10. BioFoundry for Synthetic Biology
  11. Bioprocess Engineering for Synthetic Biology
  12. Industrialization of Synthetic Biology
  13. Synthetic Microbial Cell Factories
  14. Synthetic Therapeutic Cells

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3247/practical-synthetic-biology

Topics:

  1. Introduction to Practical Synthetic Biology
  2. Analytics in Synthetic Biology
  3. DNA Sequencing and Writing
  4. DNA Assembly
  5. Cell Factories and Synthetic Biology
  6. Genome Engineering Tools in Synthetic Biology
  7. Biosensor and Synthetic Biology
  8. Biosafety and Biosecurity in Synthetic Biology

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3252/evolution-and-comparative-genomics

Topics:

  1. Natural selection
    • Recap natural selection, population genetics, selection and drift, neutral theory, evolution at multiple loci, species and speciation.
  2. Palaeobiology
    • History of life, geologic time scale, fossil record, extinction, palaeoecology, biogeography, biostratigraphy, fossil taxa.
  3. Tree of life
    • Understanding relationships, inferring and reading trees, fossil calibration, diversification rates, evolutionary trends, trait evolution.
  4. Comparative genomics
    • Evolution of genome size, structure and organisation, linkage and genetic maps, complex traits, horizontal gene transfer, gene regulatory networks.

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3254/ecology-of-aquatic-environments

Topics:

  1. Freshwater and Marine environments: Introduction: Course overview; linking freshwater and marine biology
  2. Freshwater environments: Topics covered will include:
    – Ecological characteristics of fresh water
    – A brief survey of freshwater environments including natural lotic (e.g., streams) and lentic (e.g., lakes) environments, and artificial or modified environments (e.g., urban habitats such as canals and reservoirs) and their respective biodiversity
    – Population and community ecology in freshwater environments
    – Ecology of freshwater ecosystems
  3. Marine environments: Topics covered will include:
    – Estuaries and the interface between freshwater and marine systems.
    – Introduction to oceanography and the marine environment
    – Plankton and primary productivity
    – Intertidal (rocky shore and soft sediments)
    – Coral reefs, sea grasses and mangroves
  4. Freshwater and Marine environments: Conservation and management of aquatic environments; course review

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3255/ecology-of-terrestrial-environments

Topics:

  1. Biogeography of tropical vegetation
  2. Species diversity: patterns and mechanisms
  3. Food and energy chains
  4. Carbon and nutrient cycles
  5. Phenology
  6. Pollination
  7. Seed dispersal
  8. Population ecology
  9. Disturbance and succession
  10. Fragment and ecology
  11. Invasive species
  12. Climate change
  13. Protected areas, local communities and conservation

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3256/tropical-horticulture

Topics:

  1. Introduction to horticulture in Singapore
  2. Basic definitions
  3. Plant names
  4. Plant cultivation methods
  5. Soils, other growing media, and fertilizers
  6. Propagating plants
  7. Introduction to landscape design
  8. Keeping plants healthy
  9. Outdoor plants, including turfgrasses
  10. Indoor plants
  11. Special techniques including soil-less methods, cut flowers, bonsai, terraria, aquatic plants, urban agriculture, vertical and roof greening
  12. Conservation and horticulture
  13. Urban landscaping for attracting wildlife

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3258/comparative-botany

Topics:

  1. Module overview; land plant phylogeny; morphology, structure, form, function; the plant body; the plant cell; meristems; tissues; root structure and function; modifications
  2. Stem structure and function; modifications
  3. Leaf structure and function; modifications
  4. Inflorescence and flower structure and function; modifications
  5. Fruit, and seed structure and function; modifications
  6. Plant nutrition
  7. Plant–water relations
  8. Photosynthesis 
  9. Macromolecules and enzyme activity
  10. Respiration
  11. Environmental regulation of plant development (1)
  12. Environmental regulation of plant development (2)
  13. Secondary plant products

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3259/fungal-biology

Topics:

  1. Fungal diversity
  2. Selected fungal orders
  3. Fungal hyphae and mycelia
  4. Asexual and sexual reproduction
  5. Dispersal of spores
  6. Nutrition and physiology
  7. Symbiotic relationships with other organisms
  8. Fungal-human interactions
  9. Fungal pathogens
  10. Fungal-animal interactions
  11. Ecosystem functions
  12. Biotechnology
  13. Conservation

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3262/environmental-animal-physiology

Topics:

  1. Introduction. Overview on the course structure and content.
  2. Earth’s atmosphere, and UV and oxidative stress adaptations.
    • Reducing atmosphere, chemical evolution, evolution of oxygen and ozone, UV radiation, oxidative stress, oxidative defence.
  3. Respiratory adaptations.
    • Ascorbic acid and ROS, water-land transition, gas solubility, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, respiratory pigments, comparison of gills and lung, regulation of blood pH, artificial blood.
  4. Hypoxic/anoxic adaptations.
    • Redox balance, regulation of glycolytic rate, Pasteur effect, reversed Pasteur effect, mountain sickness, hypoxia and cancer.
  5. Osmoregulatory adaptations.
    • Osmotic and ionic regulation in freshwater or seawater, euryhalinity and branchial osmoregulatory acclimation, urea as an osmolyte, aquaculture, water purification; salt gland and mammalian kidney, survival in the desert.
  6. Excretory adaptations.
    • Ammonia. Urea. Uric acid. Water-land transition.
  7. Pressure adaptations
    • Adaptations in deep sea.
  8. Temperature adaptations.
    • Adaptations to temperature extremes.

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3265/entomology

Topics:

  1. Introduction insects and related terrestrial invertebrates
  2. Body plan and anatomy, with life histories.
  3. Macroevolution over geological time.
  4. Use of dichotomous keys for identification
  5. Collecting insects in air, from plants, from litter, in soil and in water. 
  6. Quantifying sampling for diversity and biomass. 
  7. Differences between natural and human modified environments. 
  8. Preparing insect samples for identification, curation or for molecular analysis.
  9. Ecological functions of insects including beneficial pollinators and destructive agricultural and medical pests. 
  10. Insect-plant interactions and implications for diversification and coevolution.
  11. Evolution of insect mating systems.

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3266/avian-biology-and-evolution

Topics:

  1. Basic concepts in ornithology
  2. Birds’ dinosaurian origins, early birds
  3. Avian phylogenetics and classification
  4. Individual treatises of bird families
  5. DNA in avian phylogenetics (Practical)
  6. Singaporean common birds (Practical)
  7. Bird behavior
  8. Mistnetting and Sungei Buloh excursions (Practical)
  9. Bird ecology
  10. Avian diversification mechanisms
  11. Species concepts and species delimitation in birds; New avian species discoveries, splits and lumps
  12. Mist-netting (Practical)
  13. Bird extinctions, endangered species and the future of birds on this planet

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3267/behavioural-biology

Topics:

  1. Questions about behaviour
  2. Formulating and testing hypotheses about behaviour
  3. Sensory mechanisms, perception and behaviour
  4. Learning
  5. Foraging
  6. Territoriality
  7. Anti-predator behaviour
  8. Animal communication
  9. Sexual selection
  10. Social behaviour
  11. Animal personality
  12. Human behaviour

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM3272/global-change-biology

Topics:

  1. Habitat Loss & Degradation
  2. Biodiversity & Ecosystem Functions & Services
  3. Diseases
  4. Pollution: Environmental Change & Behavoiural Changes
  5. Ocean noise pollution
  6. Climate Change: Causes, consequences, mitigations
  7. Singapore Environmental Issues