LSM Modules - Level 4000

NUS Life Sciences

Levels 4000 LSM Modules – Syllabus

 

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4210/topics-in-biomedical-science

Topics:

  1. Development of differentiation of skeletal muscle
  2. Muscle stem cells and regeneration
  3. Effects of aging and metabolism on muscle
  4. Neurogenesis and neural differentiation
  5. Neural circuit maintenance and function
  6. Metabolic control of neurogenesis in development and disease
  7. Autophagy and ageing
  8. Neuronal Signalling
  9. Hypothalamus and Metabolism
  10. Ion Channels and Channelopathies

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4211/toxicology

Topics:

  1. Introduction
  2. Mechanistic Toxicology
  3. Toxicokinetics
  4. Organ directed toxicity: Neurotoxicity and renal toxicity
  5. Organ directed toxicity: Hepatotoxicity and cardiovascular toxicity
  6. Risk assessments
  7. Organ directed toxicity: Pulmonary toxicity and immunotoxicity
  8. Organ directed toxicity: Toxicity of sensory and reproductive systems
  9. Toxic agents: Plant and animal toxins
  10. Non‐organ directed toxicity
  11. Environmental toxicology
  12. Toxic agents: Solvents/vapors and radiation
  13. Toxic agents: Pesticides and metals
  14. Applications of toxicology

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4213/system-neurobiology

Topics:

  1. Sensation and motor behavior
    • Functional neuroanatomy
    • General scheme of sensory processing
    • Somatosensation and pain
    • Basis of vision
    • Organizational features of motor processing
  2. Higher brain function and synaptic plasticity
    • Object recognition: edge detection and simple forms
    • Object recognition: complex objects, face recognition and beyond
    • Memory
    • Memory and goal directed behaviour
    • Neural basis of working memory
    • Developmental plasticity in vision
    • Plasticity and simple motor learning
  3. Neurotechnology
    • Parkinson’s disease and deep brain stimulation
    • Tetraplegia and brain-machine interfaces
    • Practical: Introduction to computational neuroscience & AI

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4214/cancer-pharmacology

Topics:

  1. Cancer overview: from biology to etiology and epidemiology
  2. Different cancer types and current treatment methods
  3. Drugs against hormone-related cancer- nuclear receptor and HDAC inhibitors
  4. Molecular targeted therapies
  5. Conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and associated toxicities
  6. Growth factors, Receptors and Cancer
  7. Models for drug target discovery and evaluation
  8. Molecular targeted therapies (II)
  9. Cellular Oncogenes/Tumor suppressor genes
  10. NF-κB signaling in cancer
  11. Cancer biotherapeutics
  12. Cancer pharmacogenomics and personalized medicines

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4215/extreme-physiology

Topics:

  1. Introduction
  2. Extreme Exercise
    Describes how the human body responds to extreme exercise at sea level.
  3. Heat Stress
    Highlights the challenges for humans working in warm and humid conditions and various heat mitigation strategies to augment performance and safety.
  4. Cold Stress
    Outlines the aetiological factors that may predispose one to hypothermia. Clinically relevant findings and the associated treatment for rewarming will be discussed.
  5. Hypoxia & Altitude
    Describes the physiological challenge associated with exposure to environmental hypoxia at high altitude along with adaptive and pathological responses to this challenge.
  6. Hyperbaric & Underwater
    Provides an overview of how high pressure perturbs the physiological systems. This lecture review will focus on the acute responses that are relevant to diving.
  7. Trauma
    Presents the complexity of physiologic responses during trauma and how a responder must prioritized appropriately to support healing and prevent further injury.

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4216/molecular-nutrition-and-metabolic-biology

Topics:

  1. Nutrient sensing and metabolic signaling
    • Nutrient signaling in health and disease
    • Nutrient sensing, metabolic signaling and energy homeostasis
    • Nutrient-gene interactions and metabolic adaptations
  2. Nutrition and Epigenetics
    • Nutrients and metabolism in epigenetic processes
    • Molecular approaches to study nutrition and epigenetics
  3. Nutrition and Omics
    • Omics approaches to identify biomarkers in health and disease
    • Metabolites and nutrients
    • Analysis of small molecules which provide distinct properties
      to different diets
  4. Nutrition and Microbiota
    • Gut bacteria (Microbiota) and its functions in the host
    • Effects of nutrition on gut bacteria
    • Microbiota and host metabolism
    • Microbiome profiling by next-generation sequencing

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4217/functional-ageing

Topics:

  1. Measuring Molecular Age
  2. Stochastic Theories of Ageing – metabolic rate, wear and tear, somatic mutation
  3. Programmed Theories of Ageing – Genetics, Telomeres, Stem Cells
  4. Epidemiology of Ageing – Lifestyle factors
  5. Evolution and Ageing; Ageing and Cancer
  6. Interventions – calorie restriction and stem cell therapies
  7. Ageing Society – or Age-less society
  8. Life span, health-span and the rate of ageing and burden of disease
  9. Ageing and quality of life
  10. Societal challenges in the ageing population
  11. Future of ageing

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4218/biotechnology-and-biotherapeutics

Topics:

  1. Introduction and historical perspectives
  2. Principles of biotechnology and its application in drug discovery and development.
  3. DNA as drugs: gene therapy.
  4. RNA as drugs: siRNA as drugs.
  5. Cells as drugs: cell therapeutics.
  6. Peptides as drugs.
  7. Antibody therapeutics.
  8. Proteins as drugs: hormones,  growth factors, cytokines, interferons, enzymes, coagulation factors, etc.
  9. Vaccines: new technology and development.
  10. Diagnostics-based targeted therapeutics: theranostics.
  11. Omics and their impact on drug discovery: Genomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics.

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4221/drug-discovery-and-clinical-trials

Topics:

  1. Introduction: History and Overview
  2. Drug discovery/Nonclinical development (NCD) – ADME profiling and Safety assessment
  3. Clinical Drug Trials
  4. Good Clinical Practice/Ethics
  5. Drug Regulatory Authority/Registration
  6. Case Studies in Drug Development

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4222/advanced-immunology

Topics:

  1. Innate immunity – complement activation, antimicrobial peptides,
    and phagocytes in innate immunity. Phagocytic receptors and
    mechanisms of pathogen killing inside phagosomes.
  2. Toll-like receptors – overview, structure, specificity, signaling and
    adjuvant role in the induction of adaptive immunity.
  3. Dendritic cells – immunobiology and activation.
  4. Natural killer cells –NK activation, NK cell mediated cytotoxicity, and
    NK cell cross-talk with other cells.
  5. Lymphocyte development – hematopoietic stem cell biology, the development of central tolerance.
  6. Lymphocyte trafficking
  7. Antigen presentation – antigen processing, antigen loading, MHC binding selection, and cross presentation.
  8. T cell subsets – Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg differentiation, molecular characteristics, effector mechanisms.
  9. Viral Immunity
  10. Mucosal immunity and microbiome
  11. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy
  12. Autoimmunity and tolerance
  13. Antibody therapy
  14. Transplantation

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4223/advances-in-antimicrobial-strategies

Topics:

  1. Introduction & Overview
  2. Mechanisms of Action of Antimicrobial Agents
  3. Laboratory Methods
  4. Microbial Pathogenesis
  5. Vaccine Trials
  6. Opportunistic Infections
  7. Drug Discovery
  8. New and ‘New’ Infections

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4225/genetic-medicine-in-the-post-genomic-era

Topics:

  1. Introduction and Review of Human Genetics Principles
  2. Disease Gene Identification
  3. Ultra-High Throughput Strategies for Genetic Medicine
  4. Genetic Testing
  5. Molecular Therapy
  6. Gene Therapy
  7. Ethics in Molecular Medicine

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4226/infection-and-immunity

Topics:

  1. Bacteriology and bacterial pathogenesis (basic principles)
  2. Virology and viral pathogenesis (basic principles)
  3. Parasitology and parasite pathogenesis (basic principles)
  4. Immunology basics (innate and adaptive immunity; mucosal immunity)
  5. Host-pathogen interactions
  6. Vaccinology (History; types of vaccines; adjuvants; neonatal vaccinology)
  7. Animal models of infection
  8. Viral and parasitic zoonoses
  9. M. tuberculosis: TB pathogenesis
  10. M. tuberculosis: Drug development against TB
  11. Dengue virus: DEN pathology and virology
  12. Dengue virus: Vaccine and drug development
  13. DENV-Host interactions
  14. Bacteria in practice
  15. Clinical trials in infectious diseases
  16. COVID

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4227/stem-cell-biology

Topics:

  1. Introduction to Stem Cells
  2. Key Concepts – Pluripotency & Self-Renewal, Differentiation, Reprogramming, Regeneration & Transdifferentiation.
  3. Differentiation of Specialized Cell Types And Biological Applications of Stem Cells
  4. Specialized Topics – Human iPS Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4228/experimental-models-for-human-disease-and-therapy

Topics:

  1. Cellular and animal models for human disease and therapy: values
    and challenges.
  2. Cellular models for cancer
  3. Mouse models for cancer (including environmental factors)
  4. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (including environmental
    factors)
  5. Mouse models for neurodegenerative diseases
  6. Fish models for human diseases: technical capability, suitability and
    applicability.
  7. Current fish models for human diseases
  8. Fish in drug screening
  9. Genetic engineering technologies in animal disease models and drug development
  10. Human cancer immunotherapy in cellular and animal models.
  11. Animal models & human gene therapy
  12. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics: In vitro and in vivo production
  13. Animal models for stem cell therapy.
  14. Practical: Zebrafish liver cancer induction and chemical inhibition in transgenic larvae

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4229/therapeutic-and-diagnostic-agents-from-animal-toxins

Topics:

  1. Module Introduction
  2. Sources of toxins
  3. Toxins and acetylcholine transmission
  4. Toxins in neurobiology and neuropharmacology
  5. Toxins affecting thrombosis and hemostasis
  6. Toxins and blood pressure
  7. Toxins and Chemistry
  8. From toxins to therapeutics
  9. Toxin-based diagnostic agents
  10. Future prospects in toxin research

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4231/structural-biology

Topics:

  1. X-ray crystallography
    Protein crystallization
    Crystal symmetry
    X-ray diffraction
    Data collection
    Structure determination
  2. Three-dimensional electron microscopy and its applications in biology
    Introductions to cryo-EM
    Single particles analysis & electron crystallography
    Electron tomography & application
    Sample preparation and application
  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    Basic NMR theory
    Basic NMR experiments
    NMR resonance assignment and protein structure determination
    NMR sample preparation and application of NMR to dynamics and metabonomics

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4232/advanced-cell-biology

Topics:

  1. Cell Dynamics Control
    • Morphogenesis, differentiation and development
    • Small GTPases and their regulators guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) as major cellular switches – with focus on Rho and Rab
    • Roles of scaffold proteins in spatiotemporal control of GTPases signalling
    • Roles and interplay of actin and microtubules in cell morphogenesis, cell motility, differentiation and development
  2. The process of cell movement and the physiology of skeletal muscle function
    • The interaction of cytoskeleton and motor protein in the regulation of cellular trafficking
    • The cellular mechanism and physiology of intracellular trafficking
    • The communication between neuron and skeletal muscle- application of intracellular traffiking in neuromuscular junction
    • The contraction of skeletal muscle- exploration of different motor proteins in the regulation of skeletal muscle movement and metabolism

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4234/mechanobiology

Topics:

    1. Introduction to mechanobiology
    2. Emergent property
    3. Cell-cell adhesion and interaction
    4. Force in development I
    5. Force in development II
    6. Mechanobiology of cell division and apoptosis I
    7. Mechanobiology of apoptosis II
    8. Force generation / Cytoskeleton
    9. Mechanosensing 
    10. Tools in Mechanobiology
    11. Microscopy
    12. Force measurement / Ethic in research
    13. Cell migration I
    14. Cell migration II
    15. Cell migration III
    16. Mechanobiology of disease​​​​​​​
    17. Mechanobiology in Plant

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4241/functional-genomics

    Topics:

    1. Introduction
      • Understanding the human genome project, history and its significance. Genome sequencing strategies.
      • Post-genomic era: functional genomics and comparative genomics. Challenges of bridging genomics with advances in transcriptomics and proteomics. Comparison of ‘Reverse Genetics’ and ‘Classical Genetics’.
      • Genome sequencing: Physical and Genetic linkage maps, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
      • Epigenetics: Emergence of epigenetics as a new field. Strategies for epigenetics and reading the ‘histone code’. DNA methylation, histone modifications, gene transcription hotspots
      • RNA modifications: splicing, RNA processing, gene product turnover, RNA interference
      • Functional Genomics tools: Gene knockouts, random and site-directed mutagenesis, transposon mutagenesis, chemical mutagenesis, knockdown, gene therapy and current trends
    2. DNA microarray: technologies and applications
      • Oligonucleotide and cDNA microarrays
      • Gene expression analysis
      • Array comparative genomic hybridization
      • Chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray
      • Microarray experimental design and data analysis
    3. Pharmacogenomics
      • SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism)
      • HAPs (Haplotypes)
      • Personlized medicine
    4. Lipidomics
      • Technologies
      • Applications in diseases
    5. Proteomics Methods and applications
      • Gel –based proteomics :2DE, 2D-DIGE
      • MS-based proteomics : iCAT, iTRAQ, SILAC
      • Proteomic analysis of post-translationally modified (PTM) proteins (Modificomics)
      • Protein chips (microarrays) : Functional and analytical arrays
      • Yeast proteme chip, cell microarrays, and tissue microarrays (TMA)
      • Interaction proteomics (interactome) : large scale studies of protein-protein interactions
      • Localizome: large scale study of cellular localization of proteins
    6. Structural genomics
      • High throughput protein expression and structural analysis using NMR and x-ray diffraction
    7. Applications of functional proteomics in :
      • Disease detection (e.g. cancer)
      • Drug discovery

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4242/protein-engineering

    Topics:

    1. Introduction
    2. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems for protein production
    3. Strong and regulatable promoters
    4. Uses of cleavable fusion proteins for affinity purification
    5. Cell-free in-vitro translation systems
    6. Site-directed mutagenesis
    7. Directed molecular evolution
    8. Phage display
    9. In vitro display technologies
    10. Strategies and approaches to enhance biological properties of proteins and enzymes
    11. Increasing protein solubility
    12. Increasing enzymatic activity, stability and specificity
    13. Modifying cofactor requirements
    14. Engineering of regulatable enzymes
    15. Incorporation of unnatural amino acids
    16. Protein and peptide design and engineering
    17. Specific examples of protein engineering

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4243/tumour-biology

    Topics:

    1. Apoptosis – Pathways and Detection Techniques
    2. Regulators of apoptosis – I (caspases and adaptors)
    3. Regulators of apoptosis –II (p53 and Bcl2 family)
    4. Normal Cell Cycle
    5. Cancer: Disease of Cell Cycle Dysregulation
    6. Senescence
    7. Cancer stem cell (CSC) Hypothesis
    8. Methods to study CSC
    9. Role of Tumour Microenvironment on CSC Plasticity
    10. Therapy resistance of CSC
    11. DNA Repair and Cancer
    12. Telomeres, Telomerase and Cancer
    13. Metastasis
    14. Cancer Biology in the Clinic

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4251/plant-growth-and-development

    Topics:

    1. Introduction
    2. Flowering time control and flower development
      • Physiological and genetic control of flowering
      • Floral meristem specification
      • Flower development
    3. Fruit development and ripening
      • Biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology of fruit growth
        and ripening
      • Role of ethylene in fruit development
    4. Microsporogenesis, megasporogenesis and gametogenesis
      • Anther differentiation
      • Pollen development and maturation
      • Male gametogenesis
      • Pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube
      • Ovule determination and development
      • Megasporogenesis
    5. Root development
      • Origin and development of the root in the embryo
      • Postembryonic root structure and physiological function (primary root and lateral roots)
      • Genetic control of root development (transcription factors)
      • Root systems biology (gene regulatory network; root map)
    6. Hormonal control of root development
      • Plant hormones
      • Auxin control of root development
      • Control of root development by other hormones
    7. Epigenetic regulation of plant development
      • Histone (de)acetylation
      • Long non-coding RNAs
    8. Embryo Development
      • Mutants in zygotic embryogenesis
    9. Growth and differentiation of the shoot
      • Vegetative shoot apices
      • Tissue differentiation in the shoot
      • Leaf growth and development
      • Development of specialized cells and organs

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4252/reproductive-biology

    Topics:

    1. C. elegans as Model in Reproductive Biology
      • Hermaphrodite: a reproductive system with both sexual organs
      • How to count sex chromosomes, XX or XO?
      • A trade-off between reproduction and longevity
    2. Reproductive Biology in Vertebrates
      • Genetic mechanisms of sex determination in vertebrates (fish, mammals, humans)
      • The brain-pituitary-gonadal axis
      • Puberty: triggers and hormones
      • Male reproductive function, steroidogenesis 
      • Female reproductive function, modes of fertilization and the estrogen receptor
      • Implantation, the placenta, pregnancy and parturition
    3. Ageing and the Reproductive System
      • Overview on relationship between aging and reproduction
      • Proximate factors affecting aging and reproduction in insects
      • Ultimate causation: Evolutionary concepts of life-history, trade-offs, k versus r, etc.

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4254/principles-of-taxonomy-and-systematics

    Topics:

      1. Introduction and Importance of Systematics for Biology
      2. The 4 Steps in Systematics: 1. Collecting, 2. Sorting to Species, 3. Identification/Description, 4. Phylogenetic Placement and Classification
      3. Specimen Sorting to Putative Species
      4. Comparative Performance of Sorting Techniques
      5. Species Concepts: Why do they matter? Tokogeny vs. Phylogeny; Biological, Hennigian, Evolutionary, Concepts, Phylogenetic Species Concepts
      6. Working with Species-data: richness estimation and others
      7. Nomenclature, Ranking, Types
      8. Homology in Morphology and Character Coding
      9. Homology in DNA Sequences and Character Coding
      10. Phylogenetics: Optimality Criteria Distance, Parsimony, ML
      11. Phylogenetics: Working with Trees: Phylogenetic Diversity

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4255/methods-in-mathematical-biology

    Topics:

    1. Introduction and overview
    2. Dynamical systems: difference equations
    3. Dynamical systems: differential equations
    4. Dynamical systems: cycles and chaos
    5. Spatial models
    6. Communities and ecosystems
    7. Infectious diseases
    8. Population genetics
    9. Game theory and adaptive dynamics

    Module is not offered this AY2020/21.

    Topics:

    1. What is Evo-Devo and what does this course cover?
    2. Where do we belong on the tree of animals, and what does this tree look like?
    3. Why do we need comparative work to make sense of how development works? Introduction to early Drosophila Development.
    4. What are organizers, fields, morphogens and selector genes?
    5. What is the Pax6 selector gene, and why is it so famous?
    6. What are homeotic (hox) genes and why are they so important?
    7. Legs, and other body appendages – how do they come about?
    8. How does protein evolution alter body plans?
    9. How do changes to hox gene targets alter body plans? Or how beetles get their forewings turned into elytra?
    10. How does cis-regulatory evolution alter body plans?
    11. What is developmental modularity, and why does it matter?
    12. Can we identify what is a novel complex trait?
    13. How can novel traits emerge from the co-option of pre-existent gene networks?
    14. What is homology and process homology?
    15. How do males and females develop different traits when they share almost the same genome? Part 1
    16. How do males and females develop different traits when they share almost the same genome? Part 2
    17. What is phenotypic plasticity and how does it evolve?
    18. How to write and develop a grant proposal in evo-devo.
    19. How do gene duplications affect the evolution of novelty?
    20. What is genetic architecture and how does it impact the evolution of traits?
    21. How does development constrain or bias the evolution of novel traits
    22. What is genetic assimilation and accommodation and how do these processes contribute to evolution?

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4257/aquatic-vertebrate-diversity

    Topics:

    1. Aquatic Lineages and Diversity
    2. Diversity & Biology of Cartilaginous Fishes
    3. Diversity & Biology of Bony Fishes I
    4. Diversity & Biology of Bony Fishes II
    5. Diversity & Biology of Amphibians
    6. Diversity & Biology of Reptiles
    7. Diversity & Biology of Birds
    8. Diversity & Biology of Mammals
    9. Conservation of Aquatic Vertebrates
    10. Management of Southeast Asian Aquatic Vertebrates

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4259/evolutionary-genetics-of-reproduction

    Topics:

    1. Evolutionary origins of recombination
      • Anisogamy and gamete evolution
      • Evolution of breeding systems
      • Sexual and asexual reproduction
    2. Operation of sexual selection and diversification
      • Sex roles and the Darwin-Bateman paradigm
      • Sex and speciation
      • Developmental plasticity and alternative reproductive strategies
    3. Genetics of reproduction
      • Variability and its measurement
      • Heritability and environment
      • Additive and non-additive models of inheritance
      • Mechanisms of speciation
    4. Rapid evolution, reproduction and immunity
      • Reproduction and genome evolution
      • Host-microbe interaction
      • Trade-offs, immunity and reproduction

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4260/plankton-ecology

    Topics:

    1. Plankton diversity
      • Introduction
      • Freshwater phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity
      • Marine phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity
      • Sampling methods
    2. Plankton ecology
      • Planktonic food webs
      • Interactions with higher trophic levels
    3. Plankton linked environmental and water quality issues
      • Marine algal blooms
      • Freshwater algal blooms
      • Invasive zooplankton
      • Microplastics and impact on plankton
      • Climate change and impact on plankton
    4. Uses of plankton
      • Phytoplankton as biofuel/aquaculture feed
    5. Monitoring and management of planktonic blooms
      • Monitoring of planktonic blooms
      • Understanding bloom models for management
      • On-site management of blooms

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4261/marine-biology

    Topics:

    1. Introduction to marine biology
      • Basic oceanography, marine ecology, key marine environments, resources from the sea, human impacts and marine environment management.
    2. Selected systems and organisms
      • Corals and coral reefs, pelagic ecosystems, zoo- and phytoplankton, deep sea biodiversity and man-made environments are among the systems and organisms that student can expect to learn more about. Guest speakers may be invited to discuss their specialties.
    3. Human-ocean interactions
      • Living (renewable) and non-living (non-renewable) resources and their rates and patterns of exploitation. Impacts of human activities, both localized and global. The state of the marine environment, impacts of tourism, climate change, management of endangered species and critical habitats, management systems relevant to marine ecosystems including restoration techniques.

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4262/tropical-conservation-biology

    Topics:

    1. Introduction to conservation biology
      Ecological concepts and background
    2. Threats to biodiversity
      State and conservation of Southeast Asian biodiversity
    3. Priority-setting and interventions at the species, ecosystem and landscape-level
    4. Social aspects of conservation; conflicts and trade-offs
      (Possible invited lectures from policy-makers)

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4263/field-studies-in-biodiversity

    Synopsis:

    LSM4263 will introduce students to field biology, conservation issues, sampling design, basic data gathering and data management, and the basic techniques involved. From field practicals, students will experience and encounter tropical environments, particularly coastal, mangrove, freshwater, and primary/secondary forests. A 7-day field course is incorporated and will be conducted in Pulau Tioman, Malaysia. There, pre-constituted student groups will conduct their respective projects in 1 of the 4 distinct habitats found on the island, under the supervision of experienced, well-trained teaching assistants (TAs). These projects would have been collaboratively designed by the students and approved by their TAs in the days preceding the field trip. This module will involve overseas exchange students as well as NUS students.

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4264/freshwater-biology

    Topics:

    1. Freshwater habitats
    2. Freshwater biodiversity
    3. Freshwater ecology
    4. Threats to fresh waters
    5. Aquatic conservation/human water use
    6. Freshwater biology work/research in Singapore

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4265/urban-ecology

    Topics:

    1. Urban ecology as a field of study, urbanisation (definition, process, forms and historical and current trends, characteristics of cities, urban land use.
    2. Urban land use, habitat fragmentation, the urban environment and ecosystem function, including pollution (air, water and hydrology, soil, climate, noise, light, roads)
    3. Urban plants (establishment, presence of non-natives, tree cover, distribution patterns)
    4. Urban animals (establishment, presence of non-natives, distribution patterns, specific threats to wildlife)
    5. Urban biodiversity (schemes to classify species), biotic homogenisation, impacts of urbanisation on biodiversity, urban hotspots.
    6. Urbanisation-related changes at levels of the population and the individual (phenology, life history, physiology, behaviour, genetic)
    7. Urbanisation and disease (humans and wildlife)
    8. Social dimensions of urban conservation (nature deficit disorder, human-wildlife interactions)
    9. Mitigation strategies to combat the impacts of urbanisation (e.g., pollution and fragmentation, urban greening, urban sprawl vs densification)
    10. The Singapore story, research gaps in urban ecology

    More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4266/aquatic-invertebrate-diversity

    Topics:

    1. Introduction to aquatic invertebrate biodiversity: main groups; classification; importance; threats, conservation, and management.
    2. Processing and preservation of aquatic invertebrate organisms; and practical identification skills.
    3. Advanced topics (e.g., in diversity, taxonomy and classification, structure and function, ecology, conservation, economic importance, etc.) on selected groups of aquatic organisms (may be taxonomic or functional groupings):
      • Molluscs / Echidoderms / Corals / Sponges
      • Crustaceans
    4. Common areas to be covered for all groups will include at least:
      • Classification (including bases for classification)
      • Singapore biota and their relevance in Singapore context etc.

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4267/light-vision-in-animal-communication

      Topics:

      1. Introduction to LSM4267
      2. Light Properties
      3. Light Characterization 1: Spectrophotometry
      4. LEDs
      5. Light Characterization 2: Colourspace
      6. Light Mechanism 1: Pigments
      7. Light Mechanism 2: Structural Colours
      8. Polarized Light: Mechanisms & Adaptive Functions

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM4268/environmental-bioacoustics

      Topics:

      1. Introduction to Bioacoustics
        • What is sound? Why study bioacoustics?
      2. Fundamentals of sound
        • How to quantify sound? What are the units of sound?
      3. Animal sounds & mechanisms
        • Diversity of sound-producing mechanisms (eg. vocalization, stridulation)
      4. Bioacoustics & Instrumentation
        • Diversity of sound recording devices (eg. digital recorders, data logging acoustic devices)
        • Peripheral instruments (eg. microphones, hydrophones, contact microphones, shotgun microphones, parabolic sound reflector, etc)
        • Software (eg. RavenLite, Adobe Premiere Pro)
      5. Ecological & behavioural bioacoustic ‘stories’:
      6. Wildlife Filming & Storytelling
        • Narration: What is your Story?
        • Basic Videography & sound recording
          • Types of cameras
          • Types of microphones & digital recorders
        • Basics of Adobe Premiere Pro
          • Video editing
          • Sound editing