LSM Modules - Levels 1000 and 2000

NUS Life Sciences

Levels 1000 and 2000 LSM Modules – Syllabus

The following are the 4 essential (3 foundation and 1 technique) modules for Life Sciences Major/Second Major. LSM22xx are foundation elective modules, usually read in the Year 2 of studies.

    • LSM1102 Molecular Genetics
    • LSM1105 Evolutionary Biology
    • LSM1106 Molecular Cell Biology
    • LSM2191 Techniques in Life Sciences

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM1102/molecular-genetics 

Topics:

  1. Introduction; Overview of Genetics and Chromosome in Eukaryotes
  2. Cellular Division: Mitosis and Meiosis; Non-Disjunction and Polyploidy
  3. Chromosome in Prokaryotes, Genetic Transfer and Mapping Analysis in Microorganisms
  4. Chromosome Compaction, Structure, Organization
  5. Chromatin Remodeling and Gene Expression
  6. Chromosome Recombination
  7. Molecular structure of DNA and RNA; DNA Replication
  8. Gene Transcription and RNA Processing
  9. Translation of mRNA
  10. Molecular genetic methods (genetic screening, recombinant and transgenic technologies, RNAi, reporter tagging etc.)
  11. New genetic technology (genome editing, next generation sequencing, omics)
  12. Model organisms in genetic studies
  13. Mendelian Genetics – Terminologies, Mendelian Laws
  14. Mendelian Genetics – Sex Linkage, Modes of Inheritance, Pedigree Analysis, Penetrance, Expressivity, Pleotrophy
  15. Variations to Mendelian Genetics – Multiple Alleles, Epistasis
  16. Variations to Mendelian Genetics – Lethal Genes, Linkage
  17. Population Genetics – Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, Allele Frequencies, Non-random Mating
  18. Population Genetics – Mutation and Selection Forces, Maintenance of Genetic Polymorphism
  19. Quantitative Genetics – Statistical Description of Quantitative Traits
  20. Quantitative Genetics – Polygenic Inheritance, Heritability, Breeding, Heterosis

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM1105/evolutionary-biology

Topics:

  1. What is Evolution?
    What is the evidence for evolution?
  2. How did life evolve?
    How do variations come about?
  3. How do variations get fixed in populations via random processes?
    How do variations get fixed in populations via Natural Selection?
  4. What is the outcome of Natural Selection?
    What is Artificial selection, and how do we use it in our lives?
  5. How does evolution lead to variation in Life Histories?
    How does the environment determine phenotypes?
  6. How do we connect genotypes to phenotypes?
    What are the major transitions in Evolution?
  7. What are species?
  8. How does speciation occur?
    How do we reconstruct species relationships and interpret phylogenies?
  9. Why sex?
    What is sexual selection?
  10. What is evolutionary genomics?
    What is evo-devo and how do novel traits originate?
  11. What is coevolution?
    What is convergent evolution?
  12. How does sociality and altruism evolve?
    How did humans evolve?
  13. How does evolution affect our lives?

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM1106/molecular-cell-biology

Topics:

  1. Dynamics of Cellular Structures & Functions
    (Analysing & Visualizing Cell dynamics, Cell as a Complex System.)
  2. Major types of biomolecules of cellular structures
    (Cellular membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm, Intra-/extracellular structures.)
  3. Fundamental Forces & Chemicals in cells
    (Water, Acid/Bases, Buffer, Non-Covalent Forces, H-bonds, Amphiphiles.)
  4. Structures & Functions of Proteins
    (Amino Acid Structures & Properties, Protein Biosynthesis, Shape & Structure of Proteins, Domains & Motifs, Protein Families; Post Translational Modifications, Folding and Dynamics of Proteins in Cellular Compartments; Forms & Functions of Enzymes, Enzymatic Kinetics, Cellular and Pharmacological Inhibitors, Enzymatic Regulation of Cellular Functions, Cellular Oxygenation.)
  5. Structures & Functions of Carbohydrates
    (Structures of polysaccharides; Physiologically important carbohydrates; Mitochondria & Bioenergetics; Oxidative and Non Oxidative Metabolism; Overview of a system approach to the Organization & Regulation of Metabolic Pathways.)
  6. Structures & Functions of Nucleic Acids
    (Structure & Function of nucleic acids; DNA Replication and Repair; Analysis and Manipulation of DNA.)
  7. Integration of the roles and functions of various classes of biomolecules in cellular communication
    (Introduction to molecular aspects of signal transduction – from membrane to gene expression.)

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM1301/general-biology

Topics:

  1. Science of Biology
    Attributes of a living thing. Classification of living things. Scientific method and the limits of science.
  2. Chemistry of Life
    Functional groups. Condensation and hydrolysis. Structure and function of biological molecules – carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
  3. Cell Structure and Function
    Size of a cell. Biological membranes. Structures and functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  4. Energy and Life
    Energy release in cells. Aerobic cellular respiration – glycolysis, acetyl-CoA formation, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Fermentation. Breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
  5. DNA and Heredity
    Genetic material. DNA structure and replication. DNA sequencing. Mitosis and meiosis.
  6. Gene Expression
    Central dogma of molecular biology. RNA molecules and genetic code. Transcription, translation and mutations. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  7. Biotechnology
    Genetically modified organisms – bacteria, plants and animals. DNA profiling. Genetic screening and gene therapy. Environmental, safety and ethical issues.
  8. Evolution
    History of evolutionary thought. Theory of natural selection. How populations evolve. Evidence for evolution.
  9. Biodiversity
    Species concepts. Identification, naming and classifying of organisms. Constructing and interpreting cladograms.
  10. Plant Form and Function
    Major plant groups. Plant tissue types. Photosynthesis. Plant growth and reproduction.
  11. Animal Form and Function
    Major animal groups. Animal tissues and selected organ systems. Homeostasis.
  12. Ecology
    Population growth. Community interactions. Ecosystem dynamics. Human impacts on the environment.

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2191/laboratory-techniques-in-life-sciences

Topics:

  1. Overview and RNA Methodologies: RNA Isolation and mRNA Expression
  2. Molecular Cloning
  3. DNA Sequencing
  4. Protein expression and extraction including buffer preparation
  5. Chromatographic methods: ion exchange, gel filtration and affinity chromatography
  6. Electrophoresis and Western blot
  7. Strategies for developing protein purification methods

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2211/metabolism-and-regulation

Topics:

  1. Overview of metabolism and general features in regulation of metabolic pathways.
  2. Bioenergetics
    ATPases, substrate-level phosphorylation, redox potential and
    free energy release
    Electron transport
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  3. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    Glycolysis and its regulation
    Metabolism of other hexoses
    HMP
    Glycogen: metabolism and regulation
    Gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathway
    TCA cycle
  4. Lipid Metabolism
    Digestion, absorption and transport
    β-oxidation of fatty acids
    Ketogenesis
    Fatty acid biosynthesis
    Synthesis of eicosanoids and membrane phospholipids
    Cholesterol metabolism
  5. Amino Acid Metabolism
    Overview of amino acid metabolism
    Transamination and deamination
    Urea synthesis and the urea cycle
    Metabolic fates of the carbon skeletons of amino acids
    Metabolism of selected amino acids
    Other specialised products derived from amino acid decarboxylation
  6. Regulation and integration of metabolism
    Enzyme and hormonal regulation of metabolic pathways
    Cellular compartmentation and organ specialization
    Fuel metabolism in the starve-fed cycle and during exercise
    Integration of metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins to ATP synthesis

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2212/human-anatomy

Topics:

  1. Cells and Tissues of the Body
  2. Respiratory System
  3. Blood
  4. Endocrine System
  5. Musculoskeletal System
  6. Cardiovascular System
  7. Digestive System
  8. Urinary System
  9. Reproductive System
  10. Immune System
  11. Nervous System

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2231/general-physiology

Topics:

  1. Photosynthesis: from light to chemical energy
  2. Water and solute transport: ATP and chemical potential energy
  3. Water flux in plants
  4. Food and energy intake in animals
  5. Cellular respiration: production of cellular chemical energy (ATP)
  6. Diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport: from chemical energy to chemical potential energy
  7. Ionic gradients and membrane potential: from chemical potential energy to electrical energy
  8. Neural signals
  9. Cilia, flagella and amoeboid movement: from chemical energy to mechanical energy
  10. Muscle contraction
  11. Heat production and heat loss

More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2232/genes-genomes-and-biomedical-implications

Topics:

Genes & Genome Dynamics

  1. Introduction – Landmark discoveries & current trends in molecular biology
  2. Gene density; complexity and genome manipulation.
  3. Chromosomes
    – DNA topology, packaging & hierarchy of the eukaryotic genome;
    – Nucleosomes; solenoids; loops; scaffolds;
    – Telomeres and centromeres;
    – Satellite DNA; repetitive DNA; gene families
  4. Organelle genomes (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes)

Gene Expression and Regulation in Prokaryotes

  1. Gene transfer & genetic recombination: homologous, site-specific & transpositional recombination 
  2. DNA rearrangements, mutation and repair
  3. Prokaryotic RNA polymerase and transcriptional regulation;
  4. Regulatory elements
  5. Prokaryotic operons & regulatory circuits;
  6. Positive & negative control systems; catabolic response, attenuation, antitermination
  7. Mutations to identify functionalities of operator, regulator & repressor

      Gene Expression and Regulation in Eukaryotes

      1. Promoters; cis-elements (enhancers, silencers, LCRs…) in eukaryotes
      2. Eukaryotic RNA polymerases; transcription preinitiation complex
      3. Transcription factors (Zn fingers; coactivators; repressors…)
      4. Chromatin remodelling, Histone modifications
      5. Post-transcriptional processing: 5’capping; polyadenylation; splicing, mis-splicing and diseases
      6. Differential gene expression (spatial and temporal);
      7. RNA interference (RNAi) – gene silencing in control of expression
      8. Translational control

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2233/cell-biology

      Topics:

      1. Organelles and Parkinson’s disease
      2. Signalling
      3. Organelle and Infection
      4. Intracellular protein trafficking and Diabetes
      5. Intracellular cell signaling
      6. Apoptosis
      7. Cellular proliferation and Cancer

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2234/introduction-to-quantitative-biology

      Topics:

      1. Course Introduction and maths basics
      2. Building blocks of the cell by numbers; units and measurements
      3. Scales in biology and numerical applications
      4. Probability and randomness in biology
      5. Energy and forces in biology
      6. Entropy and transport and applied thermodynamics problems
      7. Kinetics (chemical kinetics and reaction rates; biological processes)
      8. Diffusive and directed transport processes in biological systems
      9. Fluids in biological systems
      10. Conductance and electrostatics
      11. Applied problems to biological systems

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2241/introductory-bioinformatics

      Topics:

      1. Introduction, biological databases and bioinformatics sofware
      2. Pairwise alignments
      3. Searching sequence databases
      4. Multiple sequence alignments and databases
      5. Introductory molecular phylogenetics
      6. Genome browsers and personal genomics

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2251/ecology-and-environment

      Topics:

      1. Course overview. What is Ecology? 
      2. The Physical & Aquatic Environments.
      3. Individuals: Physical variables; thermal and water relations; evolution and extinction.
      4. Population ecology: distributions and abundance; population dynamics; population growth – models and reality; life history strategies. 
      5. Ecological interactions: intra- and inter-specific competition; niches; predation; herbivory; parasitism and disease; mutualisms.
      6. Community ecology; assemblages or superorganisms; types of communities; community structure; diversity and stability; succession.
      7. The ecosystem concept: ecological energetics; primary production; energy flow; trophic levels; energy and carbon; nutrient cycling. 
      8. Landscape ecology: landscape structure and processes; landscape change; global ecology; the Gaia hypothesis; human impacts on global processes.

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2252/biodiversity

      Topics:

      Introduction, Sytematics & Conservation

      • Introduction
      • Learning Outcomes & Methods
      • Classification & Systematics
      • The Sixth Extinction & Conservation of Biodiversity
      • The Kent Ridge and LKCNHM Practicals

      Botany

      • Botany 1: Archaea, Cyanobacteria, red & green algae
      • Botany 2: Non-vascular and vascular seedless plants
      • Botany 3: Gymnosperms & Angiosperms (Part 1)
      • Botany 4: Angiosperms (Part 2) & Fungi

      Zoology

      • Introduction & Tree of Life
      • Biodiversity Conservation
      • Zoology 1: Non-photosynthetic Protists, Trends in the Animal Kingdom
      • Zoology 2: Animal Phyla trends; Parazoa and Radiata (Porifera, Cnidaria & Ctenophora)
      • Zoology 3: Protostomes 1 Lophotrochozoa (Platyhelminthes & Annelida)
      • Zoology 4: Protosomes 2 Ecdysozoa I (Mollusca, Nematoda, Tardigrada)
      • Zoology 5: Protosomes 3 Ecdysozoa II (Arthropoda & Onychophora)
      • Zoology 6: Deuterostomes 1 (Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Protochordata)
      • Zoology 7: Deuterostomes 2 (Vertebrates I: Fishes & Amphibia); Deuterostomes 3 (Vertebrates II: Reptiles including Birds & Mammals)

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2253/applied-data-analysis-in-ecology-and-evolution

      Topics:

      1. Review of basic concepts.
      2. Experimental design in ecology.
      3. Introduction to R.
      4. Univariate tests.
      5. Linear and multiple regression.
      6. ANOVA and ANCOVA.
      7. Generalized Linear Models.
      8. Difficulties of ecological data: spatial and temporal correlation. GIS in R.
      9. Linear mixed-effects models.
      10. Generalized mixed-effects models.
      11. Multivariate statistics.

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2254/fundamentals-of-plant-biology

      Topics:

      1. Importance of plants
      2. Plant structure, growth and development
      3. Unique aspects of plant cells and tissues
      4. The model plant Arabidopsis
      5. Sensing the environment
        • Light perception and transduction
        • Responses to abiotic stress
        • Responses to pathogens
      6. Coordinating growth through plant hormones
        • Diversity
        • Perception, signaling and action
      7. Plant biotechnology and genetic engineering

      More information: https://nusmods.com/modules/LSM2291/fundamental-techniques-in-microbiology

      Topics:

      1. Introduction to the diversity of microbial world and phylogeny
      2. Biosafety
      3. Isolation and identification of microbes
      4. Microbes in the environment: Where are microbes found and
        why are they there
      5. Microbes and immunity
      6. Soil microbiology: Isolation, identification and characterization (antibiotic producers, polysaccharide producers)
      7. Water-borne pathogens: Isolation, enumeration, physiology and behaviour outside the host
      8. Food microbiology: Isolation, enumeration and characterization (yeast, lactic acid bacteria, enteric bacteria)
      9. Human skin microbiology: Isolation, are they pathogens?