Contact Information:

Department of Biological Sciences
National University of Singapore
14 Science Drive 4
Singapore 117543

6516 2715
6779 2486

Academic Qualifications

PhD, BSc (Hons), National University of Singapore

Teaching & Research Themes

Behavioural Sciences (Behavioural Ecology), Animal Communications & Sensory Ecology (Visual & Acoustic Signalling), Global Change Biology & Climate Change (mechanisms, impacts & mitigations) 
Modules Taught
LSM4267 Animal Communications & Sensory Ecology (2014-present)#
LSM3267 Behavioural Biology (2013-present)
LSM3272 Global Change Biology (2008-10; 2012-present)#

LSM4263 Field Studies in Biodiversity (2008-09)
LSM4253 Behavioural Biology (2008-09)*
LSM3265 Entomology (2012-2014)
LSM3251 Ecology & Environmental Processes (2008-10)*
LSM1303 Animal Behaviour (2008-09)
LSM1301 General Biology (2017-18)
BL5198 Graduate Seminar Module (2013-15)

#sole lecturer


Climate Change Workshop (2 days): Impacts of Climate Change on Animals & Plants (2016-17)*

*Workshop (lectures and practical sessions) initiated by Academy of Teachers Singapore; for JC Biology teachers only (3 sessions)

Teaching & Research Interests

I maintain a broad interest in the teaching and research of environmental biology-related themes, mainly in the applied behavioural sciences, investigating how human-induced environmental changes (e.g. climate change) can potentially influence and modify how animals interact (i.e. sense) with their biological and physical environment, and hence affect their ecological roles. I have a keen interest in the instrumentation of the visual & acoustic sciences (e.g. characterizing colours [via spectrometry], sounds and vibrations, see LSM4267), and sensing of carbon dioxide (i.e. measuring CO2 emissions) for various themes, such as climate change (i.e. CO2 as greenhouse gas, see LSM3272) and pedagogy (i.e. CO2 build-up and effect on classroom learning).

Key Publications

  1. Su S., Lim MLM, and Kunte K (2015). Prey from the eyes of predators: colour discriminability of aposematic and mimetic butterflies from an avian visual perspective. Evolution 69:2985-2994.#

  2. Lim MLM, Li D (2013) UV-Green Iridescence Predicts Male Quality during Jumping Spider Contests. PLoS ONE 8(4): e59774. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059774

  3. Chua TJL & Lim MLM (2012) Cross-habitat predation in Nepenthes gracilis: the red crab spider Misumenops nepenthicola influences abundance of pitcher dipteran larvae. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28, 97-104.*

  4. Traill LW, Lim MLM, Sodhi NS & Bradshaw CJA (2010) Mechanisms driving change: altered species interactions and ecosystem function through global warming. Journal of Animal Ecology 79, 937-947.

  5. Lim MLM, Li JJ & Li D (2008) Effect of UV-reflecting markings on female mate choice decisions in Cosmophasis umbratica, a jumping spider from Singapore. Behavioral Ecology 19:61-66

  6. Lim MLM, Sodhi NS & Endler JA (2008) Conservation with sense. Science 319:281 (Letter)

  7. Lim MLM, Land MF & Li D (2007) Sex-specific UV and fluorescence signals in jumping spiders. Science 315: 481 (Brevia)

  8. Lim MLM & Li D (2007) Effects of age and feeding history on structure-based ornaments of a jumping spider. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274: 569-575.

  9. Lim MLM & Li D (2006) Extreme ultraviolet sexual dimorphism in jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 397-406.

  10. Lim MLM & Li D (2006) Behavioural evidence of UV sensitivity in jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 192: 871-878.

* FYP student-authored publication
# PhD student authored publication

All other publications

  1. Todd PA, Wang WY, Huang HW, Belle CC, Lim MLM and Yeo DCJ (2011) The function of colourful facial bands in mangrove crab (Perisesarma) communication. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 407, 26-33.

  2. Zou Y, Araujo DP, Lim MLM & Li D (2011) Ultraviolet is a more important cue than reflection in other wavelengths for a jumping spider to locate its spider prey. Animal Behaviour 82, 1457-1463.

  3. Li JJ, Zhang Z, Liu F, Liu Q, Gan W, Chen J, Lim MLM & Li D (2008) UVB-based mate-choice cues used by females of the jumping spider Phintella vittata. Current Biology 18: 699-703

  4. Land MF, Horwood J, Lim MLM & Li D (2007) Optics of the ultra-violet reflecting scales of a jumping spider. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274: 1538-1589

  5. Li JJ, Lim MLM, Zhang Z, Liu Q, Liu F, Chen J & Li D (2008) Sexual dichromatism and male colour morph in ultraviolet-B reflectance in two populations of the jumping spider Phintella vittata (Araneae: Salticidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94: 7-20

  6. Du N, Liu XY, Narayanan J, Li L, Lim MLM & Li D (2006) Design of superior spider silk: from nanostructure to mechanical properties. Biophysical Journal 91: 4528-4535

  7. Li D & Lim MLM (2005) Ultraviolet cues affect the foraging behaviour of jumping spiders. Animal Behaviour 70:771-776

  8. Lim MLM & Li D (2004) Courtship and male-male agonistic behaviour of Cosmophasis umbratica Simon, an ornate jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) from Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 52: 97-110

  9. Li D, Lim MLM, Seah WK & Tay SL (2004) Prey-attraction as a possible function of discoid stabilimenta of juvenile orb-spinning spiders. Animal Behaviour 68: 629-635

  10. Li D, Jackson RR & Lim MLM (2003) Influence of background and prey orientation on an ambushing predator’s decisions. Behaviour 140: 739-764

  11. Li D, Kok LM, Seah WK & Lim MLM (2003) Age-dependent stabilimentum-associated predator-avoidance behaviours in orb-weaving spiders. Behaviour 140: 1135-1152


Chua Toh Hua Memorial Gold Medal 2007 (Best Doctor of Philosophy graduate with most outstanding research work done in Life Sciences)