Associate Professor

Contact Information:

Department of Biological Sciences
National University of Singapore
14 Science Drive 4
Singapore 117543

6516 1034
6779 2486

Teaching Areas

LSM3254 – Ecology of Aquatic Environments
LSM4261 – Marine Biology
SP3202 – Aquatic Ecology Research

Research Areas

Marine biology, urban marine ecology, ecological engineering, coral reefs, animal colours, patterns and morphology.

Research Interests

As an ecologist and SCUBA diver it was almost inevitable that I should end up studying coral reefs and coastal systems. I conducted my doctoral research here in Singapore on phenotypic plasticity in scleractinian corals. After my PhD I spent two years in Scotland where I focused on crypsis and polymorphism in crabs (the only corals in those chilly waters are deep in the sea)! After returning to Singapore, I started working on a wide range of topics related to urban marine ecology. Much of my research has involves extensive fieldwork and experimentation, and often requires the development of novel methods and techniques.

Editorial Activities

  • Series Editor for Oceanography and Marine Biology – An Annual Review (2018 to present)
  • Associate Editor [Zoology] for Nature in Singapore (2013 to present)
  • Subject Editor [Marine Ecology] for Oikos (2011 to present)
  • Review Editor for Aquatic Biology (2007 to present)
  • Associate Editor [Conservation and Ecology] for the Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (2005 to present)
  • Academic Editor [Marine Biology] for PLoS ONE (2013 to 2018)
  • Editorial Board Member for the Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (2008 to 2016)
  • International Advisory Board Member for the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography (2007 to 2011)

Referee for over 70 ISI-listed journals, including: American Naturalist, Behavioural Ecology, Biological Conservation, Biology Letters, BMC Ecology, Biological Reviews, Coral Reefs, Ecology, Ecological Engineering, Functional Ecology, Marine Biology, Marine Ecology Progress Series, PLOS Computational Biology, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, and Scientific Reports.

Selected Publications

For full list please click here

  1. Chan, I.Z.W. , Stevens, M. and Todd P.A. (in press) PAT-GEOM: A software package for the analysis of animal colour pattern geometry

  2. Loke, L.H.L., Heery, E.C., Lai, S., Bouma, T.J. and Todd, P.A. (in press) Area-independent effects of water-retaining features on intertidal biodiversity on eco-engineered seawalls in the tropics. Frontiers in Marine Science  DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00016

  3. Teo, A. and Todd, P.A. (2018) Simulating the effects of colony density and intercolonial distance on fertilisation success in broadcast spawning scleractinian corals. Coral Reefs  37:891-900

  4. Heery, E.C., Hoeksema, B.W., Browne, N.K., Reimer, J.D., Ang, P.O., Huang, D., Friess, D.A., Chou, L.M., Loke, L.H.L., Saksena-Taylor, P., Alsagoff, N., Yeemin, T., Sutthacheep, M., Vo, S.T., Bos, A.R., Gumanao, G.S., Hussein, M.A.S., Waheed, Z., Lane, D.J.W., Johan, O., Kunzmann, A., Jompa, J., Suharsono, Taira, D., Bauman, A.G. and Todd, P.A. (2018) Urban coral reefs: Degradation and resilience of hard coral assemblages in coastal cities of East and Southeast Asia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 135:654-681  

  5. Tan, W.T., Loke, L.H.L., Yeo, D.C.J., Tan, S.K. and Todd, P.A. (2018) Do Singapore’s seawalls host non-native marine molluscs? Aquatic Invasions  13:365–378

  6. Sew, G., Calbet, A., Drillet, G. and Todd, P.A. (2018) Effects of concentration and size of suspended particles on the ingestion, reproduction and mortality rates of the copepod, Acartia tonsa. Marine Environmental Research  140: 251-264

  7. Sim, D.Z., Neo, M.L., Ang, A.C., Ying, L.S. and Todd P.A.  (2018) Trade-offs between defence and competition in gregarious juvenile fluted giant clams (Tridacna squamosa L.). Marine Biology 165:103 

  8. Lai, S., Loke, L.H., Bouma, T.J. and Todd, P.A. (2018) Biodiversity surveys and stable isotope analyses reveal key differences in intertidal assemblages between tropical seawalls and rocky shores. Marine Ecology Progress Series  587:41-53

  9. Bauman, A.G. , Hoey, A.S., Dunshea, G., Feary, D.A., Low, J. and Todd P.A. (2017) Macroalgal browsing on a heavily degraded, urbanized equatorial reef system. Scientific Reports  7(1) Article number 8352  

  10. Browne, N.K., Yaakub, S.M., Tay, J.K.L. and Todd P.A. (2017) Recreating the shading effects of ship wake induced turbidity to test acclimation responses in the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science  199: 87-95  

  11. Neo, M.L., Wabnitz, C.C.C., Braley, R.D., Heslinga, G.A., Fauvelot, C., Van Wynsberge, S., Andréfouët, S., Waters, C., Tan A. S.-H., Gomez, E.D., Costello, M.J. and Todd P.A. (2017) Giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae): A comprehensive update of species and their distribution, current threats and conservation status. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review  55:87-387

  12. Larsen, T.C., Browne, N.K. , Erichsen, A.C., Tun, K. and Todd P.A. (2017) Modelling for management: Coral photo-physiology and growth potential under varying turbidity regimes. Ecological Modelling 362:1-12  

  13. Toh, K.B. and Todd, P.A. (2017) Camouflage that is spot on! Optimization of spot size in prey-background matching. Evolutionary Ecology  31:447-461

  14. Tanzil J.T.I., Lee J.N., Brown B.E., Quax R., Kaandorp J.A., Lough J.M. and Todd P.A. (2016) Luminescence and density banding patterns in massive Porites corals around the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Southeast Asia. Limnology and Oceanography  61: 2003-2026

  15. Teo. A., Guest, J.R., Neo, M.L., Vicentuan-Cabaitan, K., and Todd, P.A. (2016) Quantification of coral sperm collected during a synchronous spawning event. PeerJ  4 e2180

  16. Guest J.R., Low, J., Tun, K., Wilson, B., Ng, C., Raingeard, D., Ulstrup, K.E., Tanzil, J.T.I.#, Todd, P.A., Toh, T.C., McDouglad, D., Chou L.M. and Steinberg, P.D. (2016) Coral community bleaching response on a highly urbanised reef. Scientific reports6, 20717; doi: 10.1038/ srep20717

  17. Loke L.H.L. and Todd, P.A. (2016) Structural complexity and component type increase intertidal biodiversity independently of area. Ecology97: 383–393

  18. Todd, P. A. , Phua, H., and Toh, K.B. (2015) Interactions between background matching and disruptive colouration: Experiments using human predators and virtual crabs. Current Zoology 61: 718728

  19. Bauman, A.G., Guest J.R., Dunshea, G., Low, J., Todd, P.A., and Steinberg, P.D. (2015) Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system. PLOS ONE10: e0127874. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127874

  20. Neo, M.L., Vicentuan-Cabaitan, K., Teo, S. L.-M., Erftemeijer, P.L.A. and Todd, P.A. (2015) Early life history of the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa and its potential effects on larval dispersal models. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 469: 76-82

  21. Browne, N.K., Tay, J.K.L., Low, J., Larson, O. and Todd, P.A. (2015) Fluctuations in coral health of four common inshore reef corals in response to seasonal and anthropogenic changes in water quality. Marine Environmental Research. 105: 39-52

  22. Loke L.H.L., Ladle, R.J., Bouma, T.J. and Todd, P.A. (2015) Creating complex habitats for restoration and reconciliation. Ecological Engineering. 77: 307-313

  23. Neo, M.L., Eckman, W., Vicentuan-Cabaitan, K., Teo, S. L.-M. and Todd, P.A. (2015) The ecological significance of giant clams in coral reef ecosystems. Biological Conservation. 181: 111–123

  24. Junjie, R.K, Browne, N.K., Erftemeijer P.L.A. and Todd, P.A. (2014) Impacts of sediments on coral energetics: partitioning the effects of turbidity and settling particles. PLOS ONE.9(9): e107195. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107195

  25. Soo, P. and Todd, P.A. (2014) The behaviour of giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae). Marine Biology.161:2699–2717

  26. Tay, Y.C., Noreen, A.M.E., Chou, L.M. and Todd, P.A. (2014) Connectivity of the broadcast spawning reef coral Platygyra sinensis on impacted reefs, and the description of new microsatellite markers. Coral Reefs.10.1007/s00338-014-1206-6

  27. Lee, B.Y., Parra-Velandia, F.J., Ng, N.K., and Todd, P.A. (2014) An unusual form of camouflage in the mangrove crab Clistocoeloma merguiense. Bulletin of Marine Science. 90: 967-968

  28. Yaakub, S.M., Chen, E., Bouma, T.J., Erftemeijer, P.L.A. and Todd, P.A. (2014) Chronic light reduction reduces overall resilience to additional shading stress in the seagrass Halophila ovalis. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 83: 467–474

  29. Yaakub, S.M., McKenzie, L.J., Erftemeijer P.L.A., Bouma, T.J. and Todd, P.A. (2014) Courage under fire: Seagrass persistence adjacent to a highly urbanised city-state. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 83: 417–424

  30. Browne, N.K., Precht, E., Last, K.S. and Todd, P.A. (2014) The photo-physiological costs associated with acute sediment stress events in three near-shore turbid water corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 502:129-143

  31. Loke L.H.L., Jachowski, N.R., Bouma, T.J., Ladle, R.J. and Todd, P.A. (2014) Complexity for Artificial Substrates (CASU): software for creating and visualising habitat complexity. PLOS ONE 9(2): e87990. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0087990

  32. Neo, M.L., Erftemeijer, P.L.A., van Beek J.K.L., van Maren D. S., Teo S. L-M and Todd, P.A. (2013) Recruitment constraints in Singapore’s fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) populations – A dispersal model approach. PLOS ONE. 8(3): e58819. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0058819

  33. Tanzil, J.T.I., Brown, B.E., Dunne, R.P., Lee, J.N., Kaandorp, J.A. and Todd, P.A. (2013) Regional decline in growth rates of massive Porites corals in Southeast Asia. Global Change Biology. 19: 3011-3023

  34. Stevens, M., Cheo P.R. and Todd, P.A. (2013) Color change and camouflage in the horned ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12039

  35. Ong, C.W., Reimer, J.D. and Todd, P.A. (2012) Morphologically plastic responses to shading in the zoanthids Zoanthus sansibaricus and Palythoa tuberculosa. Marine Biology. 160:1053–1064

  36. Neo, M.L. and Todd, P.A. (2012) Population density and genetic structure of the giant clams Tridacna crocea and T. squamosa on Singapore’s reefs. Aquatic Biology. 14: 265–275   

  37. Todd, P.A., Oh, J., Loke L.H.L., and Ladle, R.J (2012) Multi-scale phenotype-substrate matching: evidence from shore crabs (Carcinus maenas L.).Ecological Complexity. 12: 58-62

  38. Erftemeijer, P.L.A., Riegl B., Hoeksema, B.W. and Todd, P.A. (2012) Environmental impacts of dredging and other sediment disturbances on corals: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 64: 1737–1765

  39. Tay, Y.C., Todd, P.A., Per, S.R. and Chou, L.M. (2012) Simulating the transport of coral larvae among the Southern Islands of Singapore.Aquatic Biology. 15: 283-297

  40. Todd, P.A., Wang W.Y., Huang, H. Belle, C.C., Lim .M L.M., Yeo, D. C. J. (2011) The function of colourful facial bands in mangrove crab (Perisesarma) communication. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 407: 26–33

  41. Belle, C., Wong, J.Q.H., Yeo, D.C.J., Tan, S.H.,Tan, H.H., Clews, E., Todd, P.A. (2011) Ornamental trade as a pathway of Cherax quadricarinatus introduction and establishment. Aquatic Biology. 12: 69-79

  42. Tay, Y.C., Guest, J.R., Todd, P.A. and Chou, L.M. (2011) Vertical distribution and settlement competencies in broadcast spawning coral larvae: implications for dispersal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 409: 324–330

  43. Neo, M.L. and Todd, P.A. (2010) Predator-induced changes in fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa L.) shell morphology. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 397: 21–26

  44. Todd, P.A., Ong, X. and Chou, L.M. (2010) Impacts of pollution on marine life in Southeast Asia. Biodiversity and Conservation. 19: 1063-1082

  45. Ow Y.X. and Todd, P.A. (2010) Light-induced morphological plasticity in the Scleractinian coral Goniastrea pectinata and its functional significance. Coral Reefs. 29: 797-808

  46. Todd, P.A., Guest, J.R., Lu, J. and Chou, L.M. (2010) One in four citations in marine biology papers are inappropriate. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 408: 299-303

  47. Huang, D., Meier, R., Todd, P.A. and Chou, L.M. (2009) More evidence for pervasive paraphyly in scleractinian corals: systematic study of Southeast Asian Faviidae (Cnidaria; Scleractinia) based on molecular and morphological data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 50: 102-116

  48. Reimer, J.D. and Todd, P.A. (2009) Preliminary molecular examination of zooxanthellate zoanthid (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) and associated zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) diversity in Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 22: 103-120 [partial front cover]

  49. Todd, P.A., Lee J. H. and Chou L.M. (2009) Polymorphism and crypsis in the boring clam (Tridacna crocea): potential strategies against visual predators. Hydrobiologia. 635: 37-43 [front cover]

  50. Todd, P.A. (2008) Morphological plasticity in scleractinian corals. BiologicalReviews. 83: 315-337 [front cover]

  51. Han, L., Todd, P.A., Chou, L.M., Yap, V.B. and Sivalonganathan, B. (2008) The defensive role of scutes in juvenile fluted giant clams (Tridacna squamosa). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 359: 77-83

  52. Todd, P.A. and Ladle, R.J. (2008) Citations: poor practices by authors reduce their value. Nature. 451: 244  

  53. Huang, D., Meier, R., Todd, P.A. and Chou, L.M. (2008) Slow mitochondrial COI sequence evolution at the base of the metazoan tree and its implications for DNA barcoding. Journal of Molecular Evolution. 66:167-174

  54. Todd, P.A., Yeo, D.C.J., Li, D. and  Ladle, R.J. (2007) Citing practices in ecology: can we believe our own words? Oikos. 116: 1599-1601

  55. Huang, D., Todd, P.A. and Guest, J.R. (2007) Locomotion and aggregation in the fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 342: 269–281.

  56. Todd, P.A., Briers, R.A., Ladle, R.J., Middleton, F. (2006) Phenotype-environment matching in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas). Marine Biology. 148: 1357-1367.

  57. Todd, P.A. and Chou, L.M. (2005) A Tale of Survival: Labrador Park, Singapore. Coral Reefs. 24 (3): 391-391. 

  58. Todd, P.A., Ladle, R.J., Briers, R. and Brunton, A. (2005) Quantifying two-dimensional dichromatic patterns using a photographic technique: case study on the shore crab (Carcinus maenas, L.). Ecological Research. 20: 497-502. 

  59. Todd, P.A., Ladle, R.J., Lewin-Koh, N.J.I. and Chou, L.M. (2004) Flesh or Bone? Quantifying small-scale coral morphology using with-tissue and without-tissue techniques. Marine Biology.145: 323-328.

  60. Todd, P.A., Sidle, R.C. and Lewin-Koh, N.J.I. (2004) An aquarium experiment for identifying the physical factors inducing morphological change in two massive scleractinian corals. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 299: 97-133.

  61. Todd, P.A., Ladle, R.J., Lewin-Koh, N.J.I. and Chou, L.M. (2004) Genotype x environment interactions in transplanted clones of the massive corals Favia speciosa and Diploastrea heliopora. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 271: 167-182.

  62. Todd, P.A., Sidle, R.C. and Chou, L.M. (2002) Plastic corals from Singapore 2. Coral Reefs. 21: 407-408.

  63. Todd, P.A., Sidle, R.C. and Chou, L.M. (2002) Plastic corals from Singapore 1. Coral Reefs. 21: 391-392.

  64. Todd, P.A., Sanderson, P.G. and Chou, L.M. (2001) Small-scale variation in the scleractinian coral Favia speciosa (Dana, 1846) around Singapore. Hydrobiologia. 444: 227-235